✪✪✪ The Pros And Cons Of The Progressive Era
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The Progressive Era Explained: US History Review
The women photographed are encouraging men to vote for the 19th Amendment. The 19th Amendment, guaranteeing all women the right to vote, was passed by Congress on June 4, and ratified on August 18, When Tennessee the 36th state ratified, Aug. His "yes' vote, encouraged by a letter from his mother, broke a tie and caused Tennessee to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. Tennessee was the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment and it then became law. National Women's History Museum S. Whiting Street, Suite , Alexandria, Virginia National Women's History Museum. The vote is the emblem of your equality, women of America, the guarantee of your liberty. Carrie Chapman Catt. View fullsize. Passing the 19th Amendment. By Allison Lange, Ph. Fall Churches and schools were preserved.
Building for the project began in and it was opened by the Prince of Wales in The Tudor Walters Committee Report into the provision of housing and post-war reconstruction in the United Kingdom, was commissioned by Parliament as a response to the shocking lack of fitness amongst many recruits during the War; this was attributed to poor living conditions, a belief summed up in a housing poster of the period "you cannot expect to get an A1 population out of C3 homes". The report's recommendations, coupled with a chronic housing shortage after the First World War led to a government-led program of house building with the slogan 'Homes for Heroes'. Act which introduced the new concept of the state being involved in the building of new houses. With the onset of the Great Depression in , increased house building and government expenditure was used to pull the country out of recession.
The Housing Act of gave local councils wide-ranging powers to demolish properties unfit for human habitation or that posed a danger to health, and obligated them to rehouse those people who were relocated due to the large scale slum clearance programs. Cities with a large proportion of Victorian terraced housing — housing that was no longer deemed of sufficient standard for modern living requirements — underwent the greatest changes.
Over 5, homes 25, residents in the city of Bristol were designated as redevelopment areas in and slated for demolition. Although efforts were made to house the victims of the demolitions in the same area as before, in practice this was too difficult to fully implement and many people were rehoused in other areas, even different cities. In an effort to rehouse the poorest people affected by redevelopment, the rent for housing was set at an artificially low level, although this policy also only achieved mixed success.
The Josefov neighborhood, or Old Jewish Quarter , in Prague was leveled and rebuilt in an effort at urban renewal between and Other programs, such as that in Castleford in the United Kingdom and known as The Castleford Project  seek to establish a process of urban renewal which enables local citizens to have greater control and ownership of the direction of their community and the way in which it overcomes market failure. This supports important themes in urban renewal today, such as participation, sustainability and trust — and government acting as advocate and 'enabler', rather than an instrument of command and control.
During the s the concept of culture -led regeneration gained ground. Examples most often cited as successes include Temple Bar in Dublin where tourism was attracted to a bohemian 'cultural quarter', Barcelona where the Olympics provided a catalyst for infrastructure improvements and the redevelopment of the water front area, and Bilbao where the building of a new art museum was the focus for a new business district around the city's derelict dock area. The approach has become very popular in the UK due to the availability of lottery funding for capital projects and the vibrancy of the cultural and creative sectors. However, the arrival of Tate Modern in the London borough of Southwark may be heralded as a catalyst to economic revival in its surrounding neighborhood.
In post-apartheid South Africa major grassroots social movements such as the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign and Abahlali baseMjondolo emerged to contest 'urban renewal' programs that forcibly relocated the poor out of the cities. The politics of urban renewal which frequently relies on the state's dominance in the discourse of removing the character and infrastructure of older city cores, with that which is required by existing market based constituents has to be examined further. Professor Kenneth Paul Tan of the National University of Singapore has this to say "Singapore's self-image of having achieved success against all odds puts tremendous pressure on its government and people to maintain and exceed this success.
The push for progress and development destroys many things in its path, often indiscriminately, sometimes unwittingly. To cope psychically with such losses, Singapore's culture of comfort and affluence has been attained through the self-mastery of repressive techniques. But no repressive efforts can be complete, consistent and fully successful, even in dominant hegemony. The supernatural intrusions featured in these five films should tell us something about the impossibility of a coherent world of ideology and experience. Similarly, the efforts of Jacob Riis in advocating for the demolition of degraded areas of New York in the late 19th century were also formative.
The redevelopment of large sections of New York City and New York State by Robert Moses between the s and the s was a notable and prominent example of urban redevelopment. Moses directed the construction of new bridges , highways , housing projects , and public parks. Other cities across the USA began to create redevelopment programs in the late s and s. These early projects were generally focused on slum clearance and were implemented by local public housing authorities , which were responsible both for clearing slums and for building new affordable housing. The City Planning and Housing Council CHPC founded in had a large hand in the reconstruction of urban slums, with their primary mission being the elimination of poor housing conditions, creating less crowded and cleaner public housing.
The Housing Act of , also known as the Taft-Ellender-Wagner Act, provided federal loans to cities to acquire and clear slum areas to be sold to private developers to redevelop in accordance with a plan prepared by the city normally with new housing , and grants to cover two-thirds of the portion of the city's costs in excess of the sale prices received from the developers, as well as provide millions of dollars to create public housing throughout the country. The term "urban renewal" was not introduced in the USA until the Housing Act was again amended in That was also the year in which the U. Supreme Court upheld the general validity of urban redevelopment statutes in the landmark case, Berman v.
Under the powerful influence of multimillionaire R. Mellon , Pittsburgh became the first major city to undertake a modern urban-renewal program in May Pittsburgh was infamous around the world as one of the dirtiest and most economically depressed cities, and seemed ripe for urban renewal. A large section of downtown at the heart of the city was demolished, converted to parks, office buildings, and a sports arena and renamed the Golden Triangle in what was universally recognized as a major success. Some areas did improve, while other areas, such as East Liberty and the Hill District , declined following ambitious projects that shifted traffic patterns, blocked streets to vehicular traffic, isolated or divided neighborhoods with highways, and removed large numbers of ethnic and minority residents.
Because of the ways in which it targeted the most disadvantaged sector of the American population, novelist James Baldwin famously dubbed Urban Renewal "Negro Removal" in the s. Early to midth century Detroit was a prime area for urban "redevelopers", as much of the city had only decrepit housing available. The efforts of the CHPC and the FHA to renew Detroit caused huge amounts of black displacement due to the construction of highways and airports directly through black neighborhoods like 8-mile and Paradise Valley. Black families were thrown out from their homes and not provided relocation services.
The "slums" being cleared or being looked at for redevelopment were primarily black neighborhoods. In , the Federal-Aid Highway Act gave state and federal government complete control over new highways, and often they were routed directly through vibrant urban neighborhoods—isolating or destroying many—since the focus of the program was to bring traffic in and out of the central cores of cities as expeditiously as possible and nine out of every ten dollars spent came from the federal government. This resulted in a serious degradation of the tax bases of many cities, isolated entire neighborhoods,  and meant that existing commercial districts were bypassed by the majority of commuters.
Black families that had their homes and neighborhoods destroyed had to find housing options deeper in the inner city as whites could then use those highways to spread further and further into the suburbs but continue to work in the city. In Boston , one of the country's oldest cities, almost a third of the old city was demolished—including the historic West End —to make way for a new highway, low- and moderate-income high-rises which eventually became luxury housing , and new government and commercial buildings. This came to be seen as a tragedy by many residents and urban planners , and one of the centerpieces of the redevelopment— Government Center —is still considered an example of the excesses of urban renewal.
In , Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities , one of the first—and strongest—critiques of contemporary large-scale urban renewal. However, it would still be a few years before organized movements began to oppose urban renewal. The Rondout neighborhood in Kingston, New York on the Hudson River was essentially destroyed by a federally funded urban renewal program in the s, with more than old buildings demolished, most of them historic brick structures built in the 19th century. Similarly ill-conceived urban renewal programs gutted the historic centers of other towns and cities across America in the s and s for example the West End neighborhood in Boston, the Gateway District of Minneapolis , the downtown area of Norfolk, Virginia and the historic waterfront areas of the towns of Narragansett and Newport in Rhode Island.
By the s many major cities developed opposition to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In Boston , community activists halted construction of the proposed Southwest Expressway but only after a three-mile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco , Joseph Alioto was the first mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of community groups, forced the state to end construction of highways through the heart of the city.
Atlanta lost over 60, people between and because of urban renewal and expressway construction,  but a downtown building boom turned the city into the showcase of the New South in the s and s. In the early s in Toronto , Jacobs was heavily involved in a group which halted the construction of the Spadina Expressway and altered transport policy in that city. Some of the policies around urban renewal began to change under President Lyndon Johnson and the War on Poverty , and in , the Housing and Urban Development Act and The New Communities Act of guaranteed private financing for private entrepreneurs to plan and develop new communities. Subsequently, the Housing and Community Development Act of established the Community Development Block Grant program CDBG which began in earnest the focus on redevelopment of existing neighborhoods and properties, rather than demolition of substandard housing and economically depressed areas.
Until , the displaced owners and tenants received only the constitutionally-mandated "just compensation" specified in the Fifth Amendment to the U. This measure of compensation covered only the fair market value of the taken property, and omitted compensation for a variety of incidental losses like, for example, moving expenses, loss of favorable financing and notably, business losses, such as loss of business goodwill. In the s the federal government and state governments enacted the Uniform Relocation Assistance Act which provides for limited compensation of some of these losses. However the Act denies the displaced land owners the right to sue to enforce its provisions, so it is deemed an act of legislative grace rather than a constitutional right.
Historically, urban redevelopment has been controversial because of such practices as taking private property by eminent domain for "public use" and then turning it over to redevelopers free of charge or for less than the acquisition cost known as "land write-down". Thus, in the controversial Connecticut case of Kelo v. Currently, a mix of renovation, selective demolition, commercial development, and tax incentives is most often used to revitalize urban neighborhoods. An example of an entire eradication of a community is Africville in Halifax , Nova Scotia. Gentrification is still controversial, and often results in familiar patterns of poorer residents being priced out of urban areas into suburbs or more depressed areas of cities.
Some programs, such as that administered by Fresh Ministries and Operation New Hope in Jacksonville, Florida , and the Hill Community Development Corporation Hill CDC in Pittsburgh's historic Hill District attempt to develop communities, while at the same time combining highly favorable loan programs with financial literacy education so that poorer residents are not displaced.
Dent Lackey Plaza closed within twenty to thirty years of their construction. In several American cities, some demolished blocks were never replaced. Ultimately, the former tourist district of the city along Falls Street was destroyed. It went against the principles of several urban philosophers, such as Jane Jacobs , who claimed that mixed-use districts were needed which the new downtown was not and arteries needed to be kept open. Learn the difference between futures vs options, including definition, buying and selling, main similarities and differences.
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