⌚ Hibbs Contracting Case Study

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Hibbs Contracting Case Study



Hibbs Contracting Case Study and controversies in immunization safety external icon. Retrieved March 23, J Sch Health. The repeated Hibbs Contracting Case Study Afut 1 squares is an inactive Hibbs Contracting Case Study of 6. Safety of the 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Hibbs Contracting Case Study.

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Main article: Mildred and Richard Loving. No laws ever passed. Overturned June 12, Further information: Interracial marriage in the United States. Most sources describe her as black, but she denied being black and often stated she was Native American. See the Plaintiffs section for details. Stewart took the position that no state criminal law can be valid "which makes the criminality of an act depend upon the race of the actor" as he wrote in his concurrence in McLaughlin v. Florida , a similar case in , a standard which reflects Justice John Marshall Harlan 's dissent in 's Plessy v.

Hodges , No. American Nineteenth Century History. S2CID On the eve of Congressional Reconstruction, all seven states of the Lower South had laws against interracial marriage. During the Republican interlude that began in —68, six of the seven states all but Georgia suspended those laws, whether through judicial invalidation or legislative repeal. Yet by all six had restored such bans. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved October 26, Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved February 22, Archived from the original PDF on July 4, Retrieved December 10, Associated Press.

Retrieved April 27, Virginia and the Secret History of Race". The New York Times. ISSN Retrieved April 8, Encyclopedia Virginia. Archived from the original on November 15, Retrieved November 4, Archived from the original on February 11, Retrieved February 20, The Attic. Retrieved March 17, Vail Daily. Retrieved January 28, After their convictions, the Lovings took up residence in the District of Columbia. May 6, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on December 1, Rediscovering Black History. National Archives.

Loving January 22, ". Archived from the original on November 28, Retrieved November 27, Commonwealth March 7, ". Archived from the original on September 10, Commonwealth , Va. Mother Jones. Archived from the original on February 20, Virginia oral argument transcript". Virginia ". Archived from the original on December 14, Virginia, another interracial couple fought in court for their marriage". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 11 June Alabama , U. Interactive Constitution. Retrieved October 15, Virginia Law Review. Brittain , F. Retrieved January 25, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved May 27, The margin by which the measure passed was itself a statement. A clear majority, 60 percent, voted to remove the miscegenation statute from the state constitution, but 40 percent of Alabamans — nearly , people — voted to keep it.

April 15, Retrieved December 13, Race of Wife by Race of Husband: , , , , and ". Bureau of the Census. July 5, Archived from the original on March 4, Pew Research Center. June 12, Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved August 11, May 18, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved June 11, Virginia provides roadmap for same-sex marriage advocates". Archived from the original on December 13, Robles , N. Schwarzenegger , F. Retrieved February 8, Brown , F. American Constitution Society. June 15, Retrieved July 24, The Atlantic. Retrieved March 11, New York Times.

Retrieved July 14, Redhail , U. Safley , U. Shaefer , F. Virginia , the Supreme Court invalidated a Virginia law that prohibited white individuals from marrying individuals of other races. The Court explained that '[t]he freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men' and that no valid basis justified the Virginia law's infringement of that right. Herbert , F. Bogan , F. Otter , F. Snyder , F. Virginia held that 'marriage' amounts to a fundamental right. In referring to 'marriage' rather than "opposite-sex marriage", Loving confirmed only that 'opposite-sex marriage' would have been considered redundant, not that marriage included same-sex couples.

Loving did not change the definition. Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved July 6, Library of Virginia. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved March 4, June 8, Archived from the original on June 8, Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved May 8, International Herald-Tribune. June 9, Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved April 28, Archived from the original on February 14, USA Today. Archived from the original on February 17, Retrieved February 18, The Root.

Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved February 15, Retrieved June 18, Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved June 22, The Lovings: An Intimate Portrait. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN Aldridge, Delores Journal of Marriage and the Family. JSTOR Annella, M. Journal of Negro Education. Barnett, Larry Marriage and Family Living. Brower, Brock; Kennedy, Randall L. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education.

Virginia , University of California, p. Coolidge, David Orgon DeCoste, F. Alberta Law Review. Dorothy Robert Loving v. Virginia as a civil rights decision , p. Journal of Black Studies. Hopkins, C. Quince Kalmijn, Matthijs Annual Review of Sociology. PMID Koppelman, Andrew Yale Law Journal. Newbeck, Phyl Virginia hasn't always been for lovers. Pascoe, Peggy Journal of American History.

Pratt, Robert A. Howard Law Journal. Villet, Grey Wadlington, Walter November Domestic Relations. Wallenstein, Peter Race, Sex, and the Freedom to Marry: Loving v. Wildman, Stephanie Berkeley Women's Law Journal. Journal of Family Issues. Civil rights movement s and s. Painter McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents Baton Rouge bus boycott. Brown v. Analyzing self-controlled case series data when case confirmation rates are estimated from an internal validation sample. Vaccine safety studies are often observational studies using electronic health records EHR , however, these studies face some challenges, including outside influences confounding and outcome misclassification.

SCCS design is limited to those individuals who experienced the event during or outside of certain times. While SCCS can adjust for some factors, it cannot adjust for others. This review considered 4 approaches for analyzing SCCS data: observed cases, confirmed cases only, known confirmation rate, and multiple imputation. Researchers found through simulation that when misclassification of adverse events is present, multiple imputation analysis should be considered. When only a sample of presumptive cases can be validated, this approach can address the influence of false-positive cases in EHR data. Forum Infect. The valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13 and the valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine PPSV23 are both licensed vaccines recommended for use in adults 65 years of age and older to protect against pneumococcal disease.

PPSV23 protects against 23 types of the approximately 90 types of pneumococcal bacteria and was first licensed in ; the newer PCV13 vaccine protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria and was licensed in In this large cohort study using data from 6 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites, researchers compared the risk in adults 65 years of age and older for serious adverse events AEs following vaccination with either PCV13 or PPSV Recently, several outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases generated concerns about the impact of increasing rates of undervaccination.

This study investigates whether rates of vaccination in children with autism spectrum disorder ASD and their younger siblings differ from rates of vaccination in the general pediatric population. Results show that both children with ASD and their younger siblings are significantly less likely to be fully vaccinated than children in families without a child with ASD. Although the reasons for undervaccination are not fully explored in this study, results suggest that parental refusal of vaccination may play an important role.

Donahue J. Association of spontaneous abortion with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine containing H1N1pdm09 in and Summaries are not made for a response to a letter to the editor. Epub Mar Some parents are concerned the childhood immunization schedule could increase risk for allergic disorders, including asthma. Researchers wanted to examine if there was a risk of vaccination status misclassification between parent and health record and if risk factors of asthma and other allergies varied by status. This survey was conducted among parents of children months old at 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites. Among a sample of 2, parents, 1, The data from this study will assist future observational studies with measurement and controlling disease risk.

While a Danish study did not find evidence that multiple vaccine antigen exposure was associated with the risk for non-vaccine-targeted infectious diseases, this type of study has not been completed in the United States. In this case control study, data was collected from 6 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites to compare children with non-vaccine targeted infections to children without such infections. There were children ages 24 through 47 months enrolled cases, and controls and the results were not different between the two groups in their estimated cumulative vaccine antigen exposure during the first 23 months of life.

Human papillomavirus HPV vaccination has been recommended in the United States for female and male adolescents since and , respectively. However, vaccination rates for HPV compared to other childhood vaccines are lower. Researchers designed an assessment and provider-feedback intervention to increase HPV vaccine rate and identify missed opportunities for vaccination. The assessment and intervention occurred at 9 Oregon-based Kaiser Permanente Northwest outpatient clinics between April and June An average 29, adolescents ages were included. Researchers collected baseline data four years prior to the intervention and found that vaccination rates were increasing; after intervention, there were no significant increases.

Researchers did identify that missed opportunities decreased during the intervention for females years old. Increasing HPV rates in large health systems is challenging, but other interventions are worth examining. The Institute of Medicine in recommended conducting observational studies of the childhood immunization schedule safety. However, these studies present a methodical challenge because of bias from misclassification of outcomes in electronic health record data. Using simulations, researchers evaluated the percent of valid diagnoses positive predictive values, PPVs as indicators of bias of an exposure-outcome association, and quantitative bias analyses methods used for bias correction.

Overall outcome PPVs did not reflect the distribution of false positives by exposure and are poor indicators of bias in individual studies. Quantitative bias analysis was effective in correcting outcome misclassification bias and should be considered in immunization schedule research. Epub Feb Influenza and Tdap vaccines are recommended for pregnant women. However, there are limited data on long-term outcomes of infants born to mothers vaccinated during pregnancy. This case-control study found that influenza and Tdap vaccines in pregnancy are not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or death in infants during the first six months of life.

These findings contribute to the knowledge of the long-term safety of vaccination during pregnancy. Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare following live viral vaccinations in adults. Cardiac complications including myocarditis, pericarditis, and arrhythmias following smallpox vaccination have been rarely reported in the United States. However, after 67 cases of myocarditis or pericarditis were reported after a vaccination campaign of military personnel, there was a need to assess these outcomes among adults after live-viral vaccinations.

In this study using data from 4 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites from , researchers identified over , adults who received at least 1 live viral vaccine. Of those, there was only 1 probable case of pericarditis and no cases of myocarditis in 42 days following vaccination. Self-controlled risk interval analysis found there is no increased risk of myopericarditis in the 42 days following vaccination. The study findings suggest that the occurrence of myopericarditis following live viral vaccination is rare, not higher than the background rate, and much lower than rates following smallpox vaccination. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine safety surveillance in the Vaccine Safety Datalink using a tree-temporal scan data mining method.

The authors detected known AEs following the vaccine; no new safety concerns were raised. Estimated rates of influenza-associated outpatient visits during in six US integrated health care delivery organizations. Other Respir. Influenza flu related illnesses are responsible for many morbidity cases during each flu season, but these illnesses are difficult to count: symptoms are non-specific, diagnostic codes for flu-related symptoms are broad, and lab testing is not routine. This makes population-based estimates of flu-related outpatient visits during flu epidemics or pandemics uncommon. In this study using data from 6 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites from , researchers estimated flu-related outpatient visits.

Researchers modeled the rates of outpatient visits with diagnostic codes of pneumonia or acute respiratory visits. Of the nearly 7. Rates estimated with pneumonia visits plus flu-coded visits were similar to previous studies using confirmed flu cases. These numbers are crucial for measuring the potential benefits of flu prevention and treatment. Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity external icon. Allergy Clin. Vaccines are considered one of the most effective public health interventions — resulting in major reductions of vaccine preventable diseases and death.

Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity reactions are not infrequent; however, serious acute-onset anaphylaxis reactions are extremely rare. Risk of anaphylaxis after all vaccines is estimated to be 1. This review focuses on serious hypersensitivity reactions following flu vaccines, given the large number of people vaccinated yearly and the formulation changes the vaccines go through each year to match circulating flu viruses.

Recent advances in vaccine technology, along with new vaccines and the universal flu vaccination recommendation people 6 months of age and older , make continued safety monitoring for hypersensitivity reactions following flu vaccination particularly important. However, the error was costly in terms of medical follow-up and vaccine wastage. Bias from outcome misclassification in immunization schedule safety research. Epub Jan 2. Rates and risk factors associated with hospitalization for pneumonia with ICU admission among adults. Public Health Manag. The safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age: A Vaccine Safety Datalink study.

Patterns of childhood immunization and all-cause mortality. Epub Oct Association between parent attitudes and receipt of human papillomavirus vaccine in adolescents. Public Health. Association of spontaneous abortion with receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine containing H1N1pdm09 in and external icon. Birth outcomes following immunization of pregnant women with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine Risk of venous thromboembolism following influenza vaccination in adults aged 50 years and older in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Epub Sep 6. Maternal Tdap vaccination and risk of infant morbidity. Epub Apr Asthma exacerbations among asthmatic children receiving live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccines.

Epub Apr 9. Live attenuated influenza vaccine use and safety in children and adults with asthma. Allergy Asthma Immunol. Assessing misclassification of vaccination status: Implications for studies of the safety of the childhood immunization schedule. Risk factors and familial clustering for fever days after the first dose of measles vaccines. Vaccine adverse events in a safety net healthcare system and a managed care organization. Epub Feb 6. Integration of data from a safety net health care system into the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Epub Feb 1. Identifying birth defects in automated data sources in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Drug Saf Apr; 26 4 : Epub Jan 4.

Sukumaran L, Omer SB. JAMA ; Pediatrics Am J Epidemiol ; Acute demyelinating events following vaccines — a case centered analysis. Clin Infect Dis Maternal Tdap vaccination: Coverage and acute safety outcomes in the vaccine safety datalink, Post licensure surveillance of influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in the and seasons. Case-centered analysis of Optic Neuritis following vaccines.

Childhood vaccines and Kawasaki disease, Vaccine Safety Datalink, external icon. Evaluation of the association of maternal pertussis vaccination with obstetric events and birth outcomes external icon. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in 1-Year-Old children external icon. Epub Jan 5. First use of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine in the us in response to a university outbreak external icon. Risk of anaphylaxis following vaccination in children and adults external icon.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. Does preventing rotavirus infections through vaccination also protect against naturally occurring intussusception over time? Simulation study comparing exposure matching with regression adjustment in an observational safety setting with group sequential monitoring external icon. Stat Med. Association of Tdap vaccination with acute events and adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with prior tetanus-containing immunizations external icon. Safety of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis and influenza vaccinations in pregnancy. Epub Jul Timely versus delayed early childhood vaccination and seizures external icon.

Using winter to assess the accuracy of methods which estimate influenza-related morbidity and mortality external icon. Epidemiol Infect. Absence of associations between influenza vaccines and increased risks of seizures, Guillain-Barre syndrome, encephalitis, or anaphylaxis in the season external icon. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Receipt of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy across 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites external icon. Prev Med. Continuous sequential boundaries for vaccine safety surveillance external icon.

The Vaccine Safety Datalink: Successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety external icon. Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy: A review of subsequent maternal obstetric events and findings from two recent cohort studies external icon. Vaccinations given during pregnancy, A descriptive study external icon. Am J Prev Med. Integrating database knowledge and epidemiological design to improve the implementation of data mining methods to evaluate vaccine safety in large healthcare databases external icon.

Stat Analysis Data Mining. Monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine safety in pregnant women, risks for acute adverse events external icon. Maternal influenza vaccine and risks for preterm or small for gestational age birth external icon. J Pediatr. Inpatient admission for febrile seizure and subsequent outcomes do not differ in children with vaccine-associated versus non-vaccine associated febrile seizures external icon. Exploring the risk factors for vaccine-associated and non-vaccine associated febrile seizures in a large pediatric cohort external icon. Risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccination external icon.

N Engl J Med. Signal detection of adverse events with imperfect confirmation rates in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design external icon. Biom J. Clin Infect Dis. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism external icon. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A H1N1 monovalent vaccines external icon.

Association between undervaccination with diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis DTaP vaccine and risk of pertussis infection in children 3 to 36 months of age external icon. JAMA Pediatr. A population-based cohort study of undervaccination in 8 managed care organizations across the United States external icon. Factors predicting completion of the human papillomavirus vaccine series external icon.

J Adolesc Health. Risk of adverse events following oseltamivir treatment in influenza outpatients, Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, external icon. Guillain-Barre syndrome, influenza vaccination, and antecedent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections: A case-centered analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, external icon. PLoS One. Trends in influenza vaccine coverage in pregnant women, to external icon. Perm J. Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy external icon.

Obstet Gynecol. Number of antigens in early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age years external icon. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and spontaneous abortion external icon. Further evidence for bias in observational studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness: The influenza A H1N1 pandemic external icon. Am J Epidemiol. Vaccination site and risk of local reactions in children 1 through 6 years of age external icon. Inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy and risks for adverse obstetric events external icon. Assessing the safety of influenza immunization during pregnancy: The Vaccine Safety Datalink external icon. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Evaluating the safety of influenza vaccine using a claims-based health system external icon.

Vaccination coverage levels among children enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink external icon. Mortality rates and cause-of-death patterns in a vaccinated population external icon. Identifying pregnancy episodes, outcomes, and mother-infant pairs in the Vaccine Safety Datalink external icon. Adapting group sequential methods to observational postlicensure vaccine safety surveillance: Results of a pentavalent combination DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine safety study external icon. Validation sampling can reduce bias in health care database studies: An illustration using influenza vaccination effectiveness external icon. J Clin Epidemiol. Factors that may explain observed associations between trivalent influenza vaccination and gastrointestinal illness in young children external icon.

Safety of the yellow fever vaccine: A retrospective study external icon. J Travel Med. Maternal safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in pregnant women external icon. Confounder adjustment in vaccine safety studies: Comparing three offset terms for case-centered approach external icon. Uptake, coverage, and completion of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, July June external icon. Postlicensure surveillance for pre-specified adverse events following the valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children external icon. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design external icon. Bias correction of risk estimates in vaccine safety studies with rare adverse events using a self-controlled case series design external icon.

Risk of confirmed Guillain-Barre syndrome following receipt of monovalent inactivated influenza A H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project, external icon. Patterns in influenza antiviral medication use before and during the H1N1 pandemic, Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, external icon. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is not associated with sickle cell crises in children external icon. Secular trends in diagnostic code density in electronic healthcare data from health care systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project external icon.

Measles-containing vaccines and febrile seizures in children age 4 to 6 years external icon. An efficient statistical algorithm for a temporal scan statistic applied to vaccine safety analyses external icon. Reported adverse events in young women following quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination external icon. J Womens Health Larchmt. Rowhani-Rahbar et al. Risk of intussusception following administration of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in US infants external icon.

In spring , a measles outbreak occurred in Minnesota. As of June 16, 78 cases of measles had been confirmed in the state, 71 were unvaccinated and 65 were Somali-Americans. Around the same time, disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield visited Minneapolis, teaming up with anti-vaccine groups to raise concerns that vaccines were the cause of autism, [] [] [] [] despite the fact that multiple studies have shown no connection between the MMR vaccine and autism. From fall to early , New York State experienced an outbreak of over confirmed measles cases.

Many of these cases were attributed to ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities with low vaccination rates in areas within Brooklyn and Rockland County. State Health Commissioner Howard Zucker stated that this was the worst outbreak of measles in his recent memory. In January , Washington state reported an outbreak of at least 73 confirmed cases of measles , most within Clark County , which has a higher rate of vaccination exemptions compared to the rest of the state.

This led state governor Jay Inslee to declare a state of emergency, and the state's congress to introduce legislation to disallow vaccination exemption for personal or philosophical reasons. In , an outbreak of measles occurred in the Welsh city of Swansea. One death was reported. Most cases of pediatric tetanus in the U. Later the boy arrived at a hospital with tetanus. Despite this, his parents declined the administration of subsequent tetanus boosters or other vaccinations. As of September , a measles epidemic was ongoing across Europe, especially Eastern Europe. In Romania, there were about cases, and 34 people all unvaccinated had died. In , doctor Christa Todea-Gross published a free downloadable book online, this book contained misinformation about vaccination from abroad translated into Romanian, which significantly stimulated the growth of the anti-vaccine movement.

By February , however, the stockpile of MMR vaccines was depleted, and doctors were overburdened. Around April, the vaccine stockpile had been restored. By March , the death toll had risen to 62, with 15, cases reported. The Samoa measles outbreak began in October and as of December 12, there were 4, confirmed cases of measles and 72 deaths, out of a Samoan population of , Tonga and Fiji have also declared states of emergency. The outbreak has been attributed to a sharp drop in measles vaccination from the previous year, following an incident in when two infants died shortly after receiving measles vaccinations, which led the country to suspend its measles vaccination program.

Vaccine hesitancy is challenging and optimal strategies for approaching it remain uncertain. Multicomponent initiatives which include targeting undervaccinated populations, improving the convenience of and access to vaccines, educational initiatives, and mandates may improve vaccination uptake. The World Health Organization WHO published a paper in intending to aid experts on how to respond to vaccine deniers in public. The WHO recommends for experts to view the general public as their target audience rather than the vaccine denier when debating in a public forum.

The WHO also suggests for experts to make unmasking the techniques that the vaccine denier uses to spread misinformation as the goal of the conversation. The WHO asserts that this will make the public audience more resilient against anti-vaccine tactics. Many interventions designed to address vaccine hesitancy have been based on the information deficit model. It is unclear whether interventions intended to educate parents about vaccines improve the rate of vaccination.

Several communication strategies are recommended for use when interacting with vaccine-hesitant parents. These include establishing honest and respectful dialogue; acknowledging the risks of a vaccine but balancing them against the risk of disease; referring parents to reputable sources of vaccine information; and maintaining ongoing conversations with vaccine-hesitant families. That includes vaccine hesitancy. That's a very important opening stage to improving the therapeutic relationship.

If I'm going to change anyone's attitude, first I need to listen to them and be open-minded. Limited evidence suggests that a more paternalistic or presumptive approach "Your son needs three shots today. Parents may be hesitant to have their children vaccinated due to concerns about the pain of vaccination. Several strategies can be used to reduce the child's pain. Cultural sensitivity is important to reducing vaccine hesitancy. For example, pollster Frank Luntz discovered that for conservative Americans , family is by far the "most powerful motivator" to get a vaccine over country, economy, community, or friends. It is recommended that healthcare providers advise parents against performing their own web search queries since many websites on the Internet contain significant misinformation.

Internet advertising, especially on social networking websites , is purchased by both public health authorities and anti-vaccination groups. In the United States, the majority of anti-vaccine Facebook advertising in December and February had been paid for one of two groups: Children's Health Defense and Stop Mandatory Vaccination. The ads targeted women and young couples and generally highlighted the alleged risks of vaccines, while asking for donations. Several anti-vaccination advertising campaigns also targeted areas where measles outbreaks were underway during this period. The impact of Facebook's subsequent advertising policy changes has not been studied. Several countries have implemented programs to counter vaccine hesitancy, including raffles, lotteries, rewards and mandates.

Mandatory vaccination is one set of policy measures to address vaccine hesitancy by imposing penalties or burdens on those who fail to vaccinate. An example of this kind of measure is Australia's vaccine mandates around childhood vaccination, the No Jab No Pay policy. This policy linked financial payments to children's vaccine status, and while studies have found significant improvements in vaccination there are still concerns about the use of these measures. Early attempts to prevent smallpox involved deliberate inoculation with the milder form of the disease Variola Minor in the expectation that a mild case would confer immunity and avoid Variola Major. Originally called inoculation, this technique was later called variolation to avoid confusion with cowpox inoculation vaccination when that was introduced by Edward Jenner.

Although variolation had a long history in China and India, it was first used in North America and England in Reverend Cotton Mather introduced variolation to Boston, Massachusetts, during the smallpox epidemic. Boylston first experimented on his 6-year-old son, his slave, and his slave's son; each subject contracted the disease and was sick for several days until the sickness vanished and they were "no longer gravely ill". Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduced variolation to England.

She had seen it used in Turkey and, in , had her son successfully variolated in Constantinople under the supervision of Charles Maitland. When she returned to England in , she had her daughter variolated by Maitland. This aroused considerable interest, and Sir Hans Sloane organized the variolation of some inmates in Newgate Prison. These were successful, and after a further short trial in , two daughters of Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales were variolated without mishap. With this royal approval, the procedure became common when smallpox epidemics threatened.

Religious arguments against inoculation were soon advanced. For example, in a sermon entitled "The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation", the English theologian Reverend Edmund Massey argued that diseases are sent by God to punish sin and that any attempt to prevent smallpox via inoculation is a "diabolical operation". This was the case with Massey, whose sermon reached North America, where there was early religious opposition, particularly by John Williams.

A greater source of opposition there was William Douglass , a medical graduate of Edinburgh University and a Fellow of the Royal Society , who had settled in Boston. After Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccine in , variolation declined and was banned in some countries. There was also opposition from some variolators who saw the loss of a lucrative monopoly. William Rowley published illustrations of deformities allegedly produced by vaccination, lampooned in James Gillray 's famous caricature depicted on this page, and Benjamin Moseley likened cowpox to syphilis , starting a controversy that would last into the 20th century.

There was legitimate concern from supporters of vaccination about its safety and efficacy, but this was overshadowed by general condemnation, particularly when legislation started to introduce compulsory vaccination. The reason for this was that vaccination was introduced before laboratory methods were developed to control its production and account for its failures. Further, identification methods for potential pathogens were not available until the late 19th to early 20th century.

Diseases later shown to be caused by contaminated vaccine included erysipelas , tuberculosis , tetanus , and syphilis. This last, though rare — estimated at cases in million vaccinations [] — attracted particular attention. Much later, Charles Creighton , a leading medical opponent of vaccination, claimed that the vaccine itself was a cause of syphilis and devoted a book to the subject. In turn, opponents of vaccination pointed out that this contradicted Jenner's belief that vaccination conferred complete protection.

Because of its greater risks, variolation was banned in England by the Vaccination Act , which also introduced free voluntary vaccination for infants. Thereafter Parliament passed successive acts to enact and enforce compulsory vaccination. The act extended the age requirement to 14 years and introduced repeated fines for repeated refusal for the same child.

Initially, vaccination regulations were organised by the local Poor Law Guardians, and in towns where there was strong opposition to vaccination, sympathetic Guardians were elected who did not pursue prosecutions. This was changed by the act, which required Guardians to act. This significantly changed the relationship between the government and the public, and organized protests increased. The financial burden of fines fell hardest on the working class, who would provide the largest numbers at public demonstrations. Under increasing pressure, the government appointed a Royal Commission on Vaccination in , which issued six reports between and , with a detailed summary in Vaccination in Wales was covered by English legislation, but the Scottish legal system was separate.

Vaccination was not made compulsory there until , and a conscientious objection was allowed after vigorous protest only in In the late 19th century, Leicester in the UK received much attention because of how smallpox was managed there. There was particularly strong opposition to compulsory vaccination, and medical authorities had to work within this framework. They developed a system that did not use vaccination but was based on the notification of cases, the strict isolation of patients and contacts, and the provision of isolation hospitals.

Killick Millard , initially, a supporter of compulsory vaccination was appointed Medical Officer of Health in He moderated his views on compulsion but encouraged contacts and his staff to accept vaccination. This approach, developed initially due to overwhelming opposition to government policy, became known as the Leicester Method. The final stages of the campaign generally referred to as "surveillance containment", owed much to the Leicester method. Jefferson encouraged the development of ways to transport vaccine material through the Southern states, which included measures to avoid damage by heat, a leading cause of ineffective batches. Smallpox outbreaks were contained by the latter half of the 19th century, a development widely attributed to the vaccination of a large portion of the population.

Vaccination rates fell after this decline in smallpox cases, and the disease again became epidemic in the late 19th century. There, in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts , the court ruled that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic. When the league organized later that month, members chose Pitcairn as their first president. Tener to the Pennsylvania State Vaccination Commission and subsequently authored a detailed report strongly opposing the commission's conclusions. In November , in response to years of inadequate sanitation and disease, followed by a poorly explained public health campaign led by the renowned Brazilian public health official Oswaldo Cruz , citizens and military cadets in Rio de Janeiro arose in a Revolta da Vacina , or Vaccine Revolt.

Riots broke out on the day a vaccination law took effect; vaccination symbolized the most feared and most tangible aspect of a public health plan that included other features, such as urban renewal, that many had opposed for years. Opposition to smallpox vaccination continued into the 20th century and was joined by controversy over new vaccines and the introduction of antitoxin treatment for diphtheria.

Injection of horse serum into humans as used in antitoxin can cause hypersensitivity , commonly referred to as serum sickness. Moreover, the continued production of the smallpox vaccine in animals and the production of antitoxins in horses prompted anti-vivisectionists to oppose vaccination. Diphtheria antitoxin was serum from horses that had been immunized against diphtheria, and was used to treat human cases by providing passive immunity. In , antitoxin from a horse named Jim was contaminated with tetanus and killed 13 children in St. Louis , Missouri. This incident, together with nine deaths from tetanus from contaminated smallpox vaccine in Camden, New Jersey , led directly and quickly to the passing of the Biologics Control Act in Robert Koch developed tuberculin in Inoculated into individuals who have had tuberculosis , it produces a hypersensitivity reaction and is still used to detect those who have been infected.

However, Koch used tuberculin as a vaccine. This caused serious reactions and deaths in individuals whose latent tuberculosis was reactivated by the tuberculin. In , in a tragedy known as the Cutter incident , Cutter Laboratories produced , doses of the Salk polio vaccine that inadvertently contained some live poliovirus along with inactivated virus. This vaccine caused 40, cases of polio, 53 cases of paralysis, and five deaths. The disease spread through the recipients' families, creating a polio epidemic that led to a further cases of paralytic polio and another five deaths. It was one of the worst pharmaceutical disasters in US history. Later 20th-century events included the broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette , which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine , [] and the publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield [] which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy.

Also recently, the HPV vaccine has become controversial due to concerns that it may encourage promiscuity when given to and year-old girls. Arguments against vaccines in the 21st century are often similar to those of 19th-century anti-vaccinationists. The survey also found trust in different vaccine brands varied, with the Pfizer—BioNTech COVID vaccine being the most trusted across all age groups in most countries and particularly the most trusted for under 65s.

Vaccine hesitancy is becoming an increasing concern, particularly in industrialized nations. Both high and low socioeconomic status as well as high and low education levels have all been associated with vaccine hesitancy in different populations. The researchers suggested that practical barriers are more likely to explain under-vaccination among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Studies have demonstrated that children of parents who refused the pertussis vaccine , varicella vaccine , and pneumococcal vaccine are 23 times more likely to contract pertussis whooping cough , nine times more likely to catch varicella chickenpox , and six times more likely to be hospitalized with severe pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcus.

Multiple major medical societies including the Infectious Diseases Society of America , the American Medical Association , and the American Academy of Pediatrics support the elimination of all nonmedical exemptions for childhood vaccines. Compulsory vaccination policies have been controversial as long as they have existed, with opponents of mandatory vaccinations arguing that governments should not infringe on an individual's freedom to make medical decisions for themselves or their children, while proponents of compulsory vaccination cite the well-documented public health benefits of vaccination.

Vaccination policy involves complicated ethical issues, as unvaccinated individuals are more likely to contract and spread disease to people with weaker immune systems, such as young children and the elderly, and to other individuals in whom the vaccine has not been effective. However, mandatory vaccination policies raise ethical issues regarding parental rights and informed consent. In the United States, vaccinations are not truly compulsory, but they are typically required in order for children to attend public schools.

As of January , five states — Mississippi, West Virginia, California , Maine , and New York — have eliminated religious and philosophical exemptions to required school immunizations. Medical ethicist Arthur Caplan argues that children have a right to the best available medical care, including vaccines, regardless of parental feelings toward vaccines, saying "Arguments about medical freedom and choice are at odds with the human and constitutional rights of children. When parents won't protect them, governments must. A review of court cases from to found that, of the nine courts that have heard cases regarding whether not vaccinating a child constitutes neglect, seven have held vaccine refusal to be a form of child neglect.

To prevent the spread of disease by unvaccinated individuals, some schools and doctors' surgeries have prohibited unvaccinated children from being enrolled, even where not required by law. Since most religions were started far before vaccinations were invented, scriptures do not specifically address the topic of vaccination. When vaccination was first becoming widespread, some Christian opponents argued that preventing smallpox deaths would be thwarting God's will and that such prevention is sinful. Many Jewish community leaders support vaccination. However, when the first vaccines were successfully introduced, he stated: "Every parent should have his children vaccinated within the first three months of life.

Failure to do so is tantamount to murder. Even if they live far from the city and have to travel during the great winter cold, they should have the child vaccinated before three months. Although gelatin can be derived from many animals, Jewish and Islamic scholars have determined that since the gelatin is cooked and not consumed as food, vaccinations containing gelatin are acceptable. The clip was taken from a TV show that exposed the baseless rumors. Some Christians have objected to the use of cell cultures of some viral vaccines, and the virus of the rubella vaccine, [] on the grounds that they are derived from tissues taken from therapeutic abortions performed in the s. The principle of double effect , originated by Thomas Aquinas , holds that actions with both good and bad consequences are morally acceptable in specific circumstances.

In the United States, some parents falsely claim religious exemptions when their real motivation for avoiding vaccines is supposed safety concerns. Following the measles outbreaks , Maine and New York repealed their religious exemptions, and the state of Washington did so for the measles vaccination. Many forms of alternative medicine are based on philosophies that oppose vaccination including germ theory denialism and have practitioners who voice their opposition. As a consequence, the increase in popularity of alternative medicine in the s planted the seed on the modern anti-vaccination movement. Historically, chiropractic strongly opposed vaccination based on its belief that all diseases were traceable to causes in the spine and therefore could not be affected by vaccines.

Daniel D. Palmer — , the founder of chiropractic, wrote: "It is the very height of absurdity to strive to 'protect' any person from smallpox or any other malady by inoculating them with a filthy animal poison. Although most chiropractic colleges try to teach about vaccination in a manner consistent with scientific evidence, several have faculty who seem to stress negative views. One of the study's authors proposed the change in attitude to be due to the lack of the previous influence of a "subgroup of some charismatic students who were enrolled at CMCC at the time, students who championed the Palmer postulates that advocated against the use of vaccination". The American Chiropractic Association and the International Chiropractic Association support individual exemptions to compulsory vaccination laws.

They had also opposed a bill related to vaccination exemptions. Several surveys have shown that some practitioners of homeopathy , particularly homeopaths without any medical training, advise patients against vaccination. Homeopathic "vaccines" nosodes are ineffective because they do not contain any active ingredients and thus do not stimulate the immune system. They can be dangerous if they take the place of effective treatments. In Canada, the labeling of homeopathic nosodes require the statement: "This product is neither a vaccine nor an alternative to vaccination. Alternative medicine proponents gain from promoting vaccine conspiracy theories through the sale of ineffective and expensive medications, supplements, and procedures such as chelation therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy , sold as able to cure the 'damage' caused by vaccines.

Conversely, alternative medicine providers have accused the vaccine industry of misrepresenting the safety and effectiveness of vaccines, covering up and suppressing information, and influencing health policy decisions for financial gain. In addition to low profits and liability risks, manufacturers complained about low prices paid for vaccines by the CDC and other US government agencies. The United States has a very complex history with compulsory vaccination , particularly in enforcing compulsory vaccinations both domestically and abroad to protect American soldiers during times of war.

There are hundreds of thousands of examples of soldier deaths that were not the result of combat wounds but were instead from disease. American soldiers in other countries have spread diseases that ultimately disrupted entire societies and healthcare systems with famine and poverty. As a military police power and as colonizers the United States took a very hands-on approach in administering healthcare particularly vaccinations to natives during the invasion and conquest of these countries. These soldiers invaded Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines and connected parts of these countries that had never before been connected due to low population density, thereby beginning epidemics.

Military personnel used Rudyard's Kipling's poem " The White Man's Burden " to explain their imperialistic actions in Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico and the need for the United States to help the "dark-skinned Barbarians" [] reach modern sanitary standards. American actions abroad before, during, and after the war emphasized a need for proper sanitation habits especially on behalf of the natives. Natives who refuse to oblige with American health standards and procedures risked fines or imprisonment.

If entire villages refused the army's current sanitation policy at any given time they risked being burnt to the ground to preserve the health and safety of soldiers from endemic smallpox and yellow fever. Military personnel in Puerto Rico provided Public Health services that culminated in military orders that mandated vaccinations for children before they were six months old and a general vaccination order. This period began the United States' movement toward an expansion of medical practices that included "tropical medicine" in an attempt to protect the lives of soldiers abroad.

During the Vietnam War, vaccination was necessary for soldiers to fight overseas. Because disease follows soldiers, [] they had to receive vaccines preventing cholera , influenza, measles, meningococcemia, Bubonic plague , poliovirus, smallpox, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid , typhus , and yellow fever. However, the diseases mainly prevalent in Vietnam at this time were measles and polio. The United States military screened patients, dispensed medication, distributed clothing and food, and even passed out propaganda such as comic books.

Confidence in vaccines varies over place and time and among different vaccines. Refusal of the MMR vaccine has increased in twelve European states since The project published a report in assessing vaccine hesitancy among the public in all the 28 EU member states and among general practitioners in ten of them. Younger adults in the survey had less confidence than older people. Most of the GPs did not recommend the seasonal influenza vaccine. Confidence in the population correlated with confidence among GPs. This is a database of reports of issues associated with vaccines which has been useful for investigation, but since any claim can be entered into the VAERS, its data is not all reliable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Vaccine controversies. Reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or have one's children vaccinated. General information. Alternative medicine History Terminology Alternative veterinary medicine Quackery health fraud Rise of modern medicine Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement Therapeutic nihilism. Fringe medicine and science. Conspiracy theories list. Alternative medical systems Mind—body intervention Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Energy therapy.

Traditional medicine. Adrenal fatigue Aerotoxic syndrome Candida hypersensitivity Chronic Lyme disease Electromagnetic hypersensitivity Heavy legs Leaky gut syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity Wilson's temperature syndrome. Main article: Thiomersal and vaccines. Main article: MMR vaccine and autism. Main article: Vaccines and autism. See also: Swansea measles epidemic. Play media. Main article: Samoa measles outbreak.

Main article: — measles outbreaks. Further information: Vaccination policy. Further information: Mature minor doctrine and Gillick competence. Main article: Vaccination and religion. Main article: Anti-vaccinationism in chiropractic. See also: Homeopathy Plus! History of science portal. PMID Bulletin of the World Health Organization. October PMC Retrieved November 26, The Conversation. Department of Health and Human Services.

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