⒈ The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century

Saturday, October 02, 2021 1:28:19 PM

The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century



United States Industrial Revolution. The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century of the The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century classic mids recordings, including the albums Revolver and Sgt. From onwards, magnetic tape quickly The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century the standard medium of audio master recording in the radio and The Importance Of Professionalism In Health Care The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century, and led to The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century development of The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century first hi-fi stereo recordings for the domestic market, the development of multi-track tape recording for music, and the definition of obsession of the disc as the primary mastering medium for sound. Advantages of the three gorges dam The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century is known as wilfred owens poems or "hill-and-dale" recording. In the Overtones Analysis, advances in solid-state electronics made the design and marketing of more sophisticated analog circuitry economically feasible. Streaming services such as Brief Summary Of Tandoori Angel use the The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century model, allowing users to select playlists but not specific songs to listen The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century, while services such as Apple Music allow users to listen to both individual songs and pre-made playlists. S2CID

What is the Market Revolution?

The businesses created political corruption because of wealth and power, causing American people to respond with unions to help enforce the evils of big corporations. An increase of factories and advancements in transportations were beginning. This is similar during the gilded age while immigrants arrived in hopes to begin a new lifestyle. Many interventions boomed from the market revolution such as the cotton gin, reaper, and steel plow.

An industrial revolution is defined as a complete change using machines. What started it all was the transition of Britain moving from a small-scale manufactured based economy to one of a large scale factory based economy. Major changes which developed during this time in England were mainly in agriculture, transportation, economic policies, social structure, textile and metal structure. Industrialization primarily took place in England, but did spread around a lot of Europe. While some effects of the English industrial revolution were negative; like working conditions, the majority; inventions, and transportation had a positive influence in society.

The introduction in a machine stage. Social consequences of an industrial revolution in the USA and Great Britain can be considered many new jobs thanks to the developing industry and the serving sector. In general, as a result of an industrial revolution the level of living of the people of these countries rose. During this time the world became aware of the profitable entities rapid human labor could produce in factories. With the ensemble of new technology rapidly growing, The industrial revolution can easily be named one of the most significant cultural and social changes in our history. However, although the Industrial Revolution had positive outcomes, there were many drawbacks that resulted from rapid growth.

By the end of the Civil War, the United States managed to undergo a drastic and imperative transformation in its history. When the war began, the country was mainly powered by agriculture. The end of the war began a new way of life in America- an industrial one. A few groups of people who participated in this migration include: The Japanese,…. The development of economic system affected all classes in the states from rich white males to women and poor slavers. The innovation and improvement of transportation changed both reality and spirit. It also appeared in slave institution as both positive and negative image. Even after the Civil War, the Market Revolution still have impact to present in different forms. Essays Essays FlashCards.

Browse Essays. Sign in. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Show More. Read More. In addition to facilitating the high-volume, low-cost transfer and storage of digital audio files, this new technology has also powered an explosion in the availability of so-called "back-catalogue" titles stored in the archives of recording labels, thanks to the fact that labels can now convert old recordings and distribute them digitally at a fraction of the cost of physically reissuing albums on LP or CD. Digital audio has also enabled dramatic improvements in the restoration and remastering of acoustic and pre-digital electric recordings, and even freeware consumer-level digital software can very effectively eliminate scratches, surface noise and other unwanted sonic artefacts from old 78rpm and vinyl recordings and greatly enhance the sound quality of all but the most badly damaged records.

In the field of consumer-level digital data storage, the continuing trend towards increasing capacity and falling costs means that consumers can now acquire and store vast quantities of high-quality digital media audio, video, games and other applications , and build up media libraries consisting of tens or even hundreds of thousands of songs, albums, or videos — collections which, for all but the wealthiest, would have been both physically and financially impossible to amass in such quantities if they were on 78 or LP, yet which can now be contained on storage devices no larger than the average hardcover book.

The digital audio file marked the end of one era in recording and the beginning of another. Digital files effectively eliminated the need to create or use a discrete, purpose-made physical recording medium a disc, or a reel of tape, etc. Concurrent with the development of these digital file formats, dramatic advances in home computing and the rapid expansion of the Internet mean that digital sound recordings can now be captured, processed, reproduced, distributed and stored entirely electronically, on a range of magnetic and optical recording media, and these can be distributed anywhere in the world, with no loss of fidelity, and crucially, without the need to first transfer these files to some form of permanent recording medium for shipment and sale.

Music streaming services have gained popularity since the late s. Instead, they listen over the internet. The freemium model many music streaming services use, such as Spotify and Apple Music , provide a limited amount of content for free, and then premium services for payment. Streaming services such as Pandora use the radio model, allowing users to select playlists but not specific songs to listen to, while services such as Apple Music allow users to listen to both individual songs and pre-made playlists. The earliest method of sound recording and reproduction involved the live recording of a performance directly to a recording medium by an entirely mechanical process, often called "acoustical recording".

In the standard procedure used until the mids, the sounds generated by the performance vibrated a diaphragm with a recording stylus connected to it while the stylus cut a groove into a soft recording medium rotating beneath it. To make this process as efficient as possible, the diaphragm was located at the apex of a hollow cone that served to collect and focus the acoustical energy, with the performers crowded around the other end. Recording balance was achieved empirically. A performer who recorded too strongly or not strongly enough would be moved away from or nearer to the mouth of the cone. The number and kind of instruments that could be recorded were limited. Brass instruments, which recorded well, often substituted instruments such as cellos and bass fiddles, which did not.

In some early jazz recordings, a block of wood was used in place of the snare drum , which could easily overload the recording diaphragm. It was intended only for visual study of the recording and could not play back the sound. The recording medium was a sheet of soot-coated paper wrapped around a rotating cylinder carried on a threaded rod. A stylus , attached to a diaphragm through a series of levers, traced a line through the soot, creating a graphic record of the motions of the diaphragm as it was minutely propelled back and forth by the audio-frequency variations in air pressure.

In the spring of another inventor, Charles Cros , suggested that the process could be reversed by using photoengraving to convert the traced line into a groove that would guide the stylus, causing the original stylus vibrations to be recreated, passed on to the linked diaphragm, and sent back into the air as sound. Edison's invention of the phonograph soon eclipsed this idea, and it was not until that yet another inventor, Emile Berliner , actually photoengraved a phonautograph recording into metal and played it back.

Scott's early recordings languished in French archives until when scholars keen to resurrect the sounds captured in these and other types of early experimental recordings tracked them down. Rather than using rough 19th-century technology to create playable versions, they were scanned into a computer and software was used to convert their sound-modulated traces into digital audio files.

Brief excerpts from two French songs and a recitation in Italian, all recorded in , are the most substantial results. The phonograph , invented by Thomas Edison in , [10] could both record sound and play it back. The earliest type of phonograph sold recorded on a thin sheet of tinfoil wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder. A stylus connected to a sound-vibrated diaphragm indented the foil into the groove as the cylinder rotated. The stylus vibration was at a right angle to the recording surface, so the depth of the indentation varied with the audio-frequency changes in air pressure that carried the sound.

This arrangement is known as vertical or "hill-and-dale" recording. The sound could be played back by tracing the stylus along the recorded groove and acoustically coupling its resulting vibrations to the surrounding air through the diaphragm and a so-called "amplifying" horn. The crude tinfoil phonograph proved to be of little use except as a novelty. It was not until the late s that an improved and much more useful form of the phonograph was marketed. The new machines recorded on easily removable hollow wax cylinders and the groove was engraved into the surface rather than indented.

The targeted use was business communication, and in that context, the cylinder format had some advantages. When entertainment use proved to be the real source of profits, one seemingly negligible disadvantage became a major problem: the difficulty of making copies of a recorded cylinder in large quantities. At first, cylinders were copied by acoustically connecting a playback machine to one or more recording machines through flexible tubing, an arrangement that degraded the audio quality of the copies. Later, a pantograph mechanism was used, but it could only produce about 25 fair copies before the original was too worn down.

During a recording session, as many as a dozen machines could be arrayed in front of the performers to record multiple originals. Still, a single "take" would ultimately yield only a few hundred copies at best, so performers were booked for marathon recording sessions in which they had to repeat their most popular numbers over and over again. By , successful molding processes for manufacturing prerecorded cylinders had been developed. The wax cylinder got a competitor with the advent of the Gramophone, which was patented by Emile Berliner in The vibration of the Gramophone's recording stylus was horizontal, parallel to the recording surface, resulting in a zig-zag groove of constant depth.

This is known as lateral recording. Berliner's original patent showed a lateral recording etched around the surface of a cylinder, but in practice, he opted for the disc format. The Gramophones he soon began to market were intended solely for playing prerecorded entertainment discs and could not be used to record. The spiral groove on the flat surface of a disc was relatively easy to replicate: a negative metal electrotype of the original record could be used to stamp out hundreds or thousands of copies before it wore out. Early on, the copies were made of hard rubber , and sometimes of celluloid , but soon a shellac -based compound was adopted. In the UK, proprietary use of the name Gramophone continued for another decade until, in a court case, it was adjudged to have become genericized and so could be used freely by competing disc record makers, with the result that in British English a disc record is called a "gramophone record" and "phonograph record" is traditionally assumed to mean a cylinder.

Not all cylinder records are alike. They were made of various soft or hard waxy formulations or early plastics, sometimes in unusual sizes; did not all use the same groove pitch; and were not all recorded at the same speed. Early brown wax cylinders were usually cut at about rpm , whereas later cylinders ran at rpm for clearer and louder sound at the cost of reduced maximum playing time. As a medium for entertainment, the cylinder was already losing the format war with the disc by , but the production of entertainment cylinders did not entirely cease until and use of the format for business dictation purposes persisted into the s.

Disc records, too, were sometimes made in unusual sizes, or from unusual materials, or otherwise deviated from the format norms of their eras in some substantial way. The speed at which disc records were rotated was eventually standardized at about 78 rpm, but other speeds were sometimes used. The standard material for discs changed from shellac to vinyl , although vinyl had been used for some special-purpose records since the early s and some 78 rpm shellac records were still being made in the late s.

Until the mids records were played on purely mechanical record players usually powered by a wind-up spring motor. The sound was "amplified" by an external or internal horn that was coupled to the diaphragm and stylus , although there was no real amplification: the horn simply improved the efficiency with which the diaphragm's vibrations were transmitted into the open air. The recording process was, in essence, the same non-electronic setup operating in reverse, but with a recording, stylus engraving a groove into a soft waxy master disc and carried slowly inward across it by a feed mechanism. The advent of electrical recording in made it possible to use sensitive microphones to capture the sound and greatly improved the audio quality of records.

A much wider range of frequencies could be recorded, the balance of high and low frequencies could be controlled by elementary electronic filters, and the signal could be amplified to the optimum level for driving the recording stylus. The leading record labels switched to the electrical process in and the rest soon followed, although one straggler in the US held out until There was a period of nearly five years, from to when the top " audiophile " technology for home sound reproduction consisted of a combination of electrically recorded records with the specially-developed Victor Orthophonic Victrola , an acoustic phonograph that used waveguide engineering and a folded horn to provide a reasonably flat frequency response.

The first electronically amplified record players reached the market only a few months later, around the start of , but at first, they were much more expensive and their audio quality was impaired by their primitive loudspeakers ; they did not become common until the late s. Electrical recording increased the flexibility of the process, but the performance was still cut directly to the recording medium, so if a mistake was made the whole recording was spoiled. Disc-to-disc editing was possible, by using multiple turntables to play parts of different "takes" and recording them to a new master disc, but switching sources with split-second accuracy was difficult and lower sound quality was inevitable, so except for use in editing some early sound films and radio recordings it was rarely done.

Electrical recording made it more feasible to record one part to disc and then play that back while playing another part, recording both parts to a second disc. This and conceptually related techniques, known as overdubbing , enabled studios to create recorded "performances" that feature one or more artists each singing multiple parts or playing multiple instrument parts and that therefore could not be duplicated by the same artist or artists performing live. The first commercially issued records using overdubbing were released by the Victor Talking Machine Company in the late s. However, overdubbing was of limited use until the advent of audio tape.

Use of tape overdubbing was pioneered by Les Paul in the s. Wire recording or magnetic wire recording is an analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on thin steel or stainless steel wire. The wire is pulled rapidly across a recording head, which magnetizes each point along the wire in accordance with the intensity and polarity of the electrical audio signal being supplied to the recording head at that instant. By later drawing the wire across the same or a similar head while the head is not being supplied with an electrical signal, the varying magnetic field presented by the passing wire induces a similarly varying electric current in the head, recreating the original signal at a reduced level.

Magnetic wire recording was replaced by magnetic tape recording, but devices employing one or the other of these media had been more or less simultaneously under development for many years before either came into widespread use. The principles and electronics involved are nearly identical. Wire recording initially had the advantage that the recording medium itself was already fully developed, while tape recording was held back by the need to improve the materials and methods used to manufacture the tape. Magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as by Valdemar Poulsen in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording, and its successor, magnetic tape recording , involve the use of a magnetized medium which moves with a constant speed past a recording head.

An electrical signal, which is analogous to the sound that is to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization similar to the signal. A playback head can then pick up the changes in the magnetic field from the tape and convert it into an electrical signal. With the addition of electronic amplification developed by Curt Stille in the s, the telegraphone evolved into wire recorders which were popular for voice recording and dictation during the s and into the s. The reproduction quality of wire recorders was significantly lower than that achievable with phonograph disk recording technology. There were also practical difficulties, such as the tendency of the wire to become tangled or snarled.

Splicing could be performed by knotting together the cut wire ends, but the results were not very satisfactory. On Christmas Day, the British Broadcasting Corporation first used a steel tape recorder for their broadcasts. The device used was a Marconi-Stille recorder, [11] a huge and dangerous machine which used steel tape that had sharp edges. The tape was 0.

This meant that the length of tape required for a half-hour programme was nearly 1. Engineers at AEG , working with the chemical giant IG Farben , created the world's first practical magnetic tape recorder, the 'K1', which was first demonstrated in With this technique, an inaudible high-frequency signal, typically in the range of 50 to kHz, is added to the audio signal before being applied to the recording head. Biasing radically improved the sound quality of magnetic tape recordings.

By AEG had developed stereo tape recorders. During the war, the Allies became aware of radio broadcasts that seemed to be transcriptions much of this due to the work of Richard H. Ranger , but their audio quality was indistinguishable from that of a live broadcast and their duration was far longer than was possible with 78 rpm discs. At the end of the war, the Allies captured a number of German Magnetophon recorders from Radio Luxembourg that aroused great interest.

These recorders incorporated all of the key technological features of analogue magnetic recording, particularly the use of high-frequency bias. American audio engineer John T. Mullin served in the U. His unit was assigned to find out everything they could about German radio and electronics, including the investigation of claims that the Germans had been experimenting with high-energy directed radio beams as a means of disabling the electrical systems of aircraft.

Mullin's unit soon amassed a collection of hundreds of low-quality magnetic dictating machines, but it was a chance visit to a studio at Bad Neuheim near Frankfurt while investigating radio beam rumours that yielded the real prize. Mullin was given two suitcase-sized AEG 'Magnetophon' high-fidelity recorders and fifty reels of recording tape. He had them shipped home and over the next two years, he worked on the machines constantly, modifying them and improving their performance. His major aim was to interest Hollywood studios in using magnetic tape for movie soundtrack recording. Mullin gave two public demonstrations of his machines, and they caused a sensation among American audio professionals—many listeners could not believe that what they were hearing was not a live performance.

He arranged for Mullin to meet Crosby and in June he gave Crosby a private demonstration of his magnetic tape recorders. Crosby was stunned by the amazing sound quality and instantly saw the huge commercial potential of the new machines. Live music was the standard for American radio at the time and the major radio networks did not permit the use of disc recording in many programs because of their comparatively poor sound quality. But Crosby disliked the regimentation of live broadcasts, preferring the relaxed atmosphere of the recording studio. He had asked NBC to let him pre-record his —45 series on transcription discs , but the network refused, so Crosby had withdrawn from live radio for a year, returning for the —47 season only reluctantly.

Mullin's tape recorder came along at precisely the right moment. Crosby realized that the new technology would enable him to pre-record his radio show with a sound quality that equalled live broadcasts and that these tapes could be replayed many times with no appreciable loss of quality. Mullin was asked to tape one show as a test and was immediately hired as Crosby's chief engineer to pre-record the rest of the series. Crosby became the first major American music star to use tape to pre-record radio broadcasts and the first to master commercial recordings on tape.

The taped Crosby radio shows were painstakingly edited through tape-splicing to give them a pace and flow that was wholly unprecedented in radio. Mullin even claims to have been the first to use " canned laughter "; at the insistence of Crosby's head writer, Bill Morrow, he inserted a segment of raucous laughter from an earlier show into a joke in a later show that had not worked well.

Development of magnetic tape recorders in the late s and early s is associated with the Brush Development Company and its licensee, Ampex ; the equally important development of magnetic tape media itself was led by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing corporation now known as 3M. The next major development in the magnetic tape was multitrack recording , in which the tape is divided into multiple tracks parallel with each other. Because they are carried on the same medium, the tracks stay in perfect synchronization. The first development in multitracking was stereo sound, which divided the recording head into two tracks. First developed by German audio engineers ca. The first stereo recordings, on disks, had been made in the s, but were never issued commercially.

Stereo either true, two-microphone stereo or multi mixed quickly became the norm for commercial classical recordings and radio broadcasts, although many pop music and jazz recordings continued to be issued in monophonic sound until the mids. Much of the credit for the development of multitrack recording goes to guitarist, composer and technician Les Paul , who also helped design the famous electric guitar that bears his name. His experiments with tapes and recorders in the early s led him to order the first custom-built eight-track recorder from Ampex, and his pioneering recordings with his then-wife, singer Mary Ford , were the first to make use of the technique of multitracking to record separate elements of a musical piece asynchronously — that is, separate elements could be recorded at different times.

Paul's technique enabled him to listen to the tracks he had already taped and record new parts in time alongside them. Multitrack recording was immediately taken up in a limited way by Ampex, who soon produced a commercial 3-track recorder. These proved extremely useful for popular music since they enabled backing music to be recorded on two tracks either to allow the overdubbing of separate parts or to create a full stereo backing track while the third track was reserved for the lead vocalist. Three-track recorders remained in widespread commercial use until the mids and much famous pop recordings — including many of Phil Spector 's so-called " Wall of Sound " productions and early Motown hits — were taped on Ampex 3-track recorders.

Engineer Tom Dowd was among the first to use the multitrack recording for popular music production while working for Atlantic Records during the s. The next important development was 4-track recording. The advent of this improved system gave recording engineers and musicians vastly greater flexibility for recording and overdubbing, and 4-track was the studio standard for most of the later s. Many of the most famous recordings by The Beatles and The Rolling Stones were recorded on 4-track, and the engineers at London's Abbey Road Studios became particularly adept at a technique called "reduction mixes" in the UK and "bouncing down" in the United States, in which several tracks were recorded onto one 4-track machine and then mixed together and transferred bounced down to one track of a second 4-track machine.

In this way, it was possible to record literally dozens of separate tracks and combine them into finished recordings of great complexity. All of the Beatles classic mids recordings, including the albums Revolver and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band , were recorded in this way. There were limitations, however, because of the build-up of noise during the bouncing-down process, and the Abbey Road engineers are still famed for their ability to create dense multitrack recordings while keeping background noise to a minimum. A number of albums were released both in stereo and quadrophonic format in the s, but 'quad' failed to gain wide commercial acceptance.

Although it is now considered a gimmick, it was the direct precursor of the surround sound technology that has become standard in many modern home theatre systems. In a professional setting today, such as a studio, audio engineers may use 24 tracks or more for their recordings, using one or more tracks for each instrument played. The combination of the ability to edit via tape splicing and the ability to record multiple tracks revolutionized studio recording. It became common studio recording practice to record on multiple tracks, and bounce down afterward. The convenience of tape editing and multitrack recording led to the rapid adoption of magnetic tape as the primary technology for commercial musical recordings.

Analog magnetic tape recording introduces noise, usually called " tape hiss ", caused by the finite size of the magnetic particles in the tape. There is a direct tradeoff between noise and economics. Signal-to-noise ratio is increased at higher speeds and with wider tracks, and decreased at lower speeds and with narrower tracks. By the late s, disk reproducing equipment became so good that audiophiles soon became aware that some of the noise audible on recordings was not surface noise or deficiencies in their equipment, but reproduced tape hiss. A few specialist companies started making " direct to disc recordings ", made by feeding microphone signals directly to a disk cutter after amplification and mixing , in essence reverting to the pre-War direct method of recording.

These recordings never became popular, but they dramatically demonstrated the magnitude and importance of the tape hiss problem. Before , when Philips introduced the Compact audio cassette , almost all tape recording had used the reel-to-reel also called "open reel" format. Previous attempts to package the tape in a convenient cassette that required no threading met with limited success; the most successful was 8-track cartridge used primarily in automobiles for playback only. The Philips Compact audio cassette added much-needed convenience to the tape recording format and a decade or so later had begun to dominate the consumer market, although it was to remain lower in quality than open-reel formats. In the s, advances in solid-state electronics made the design and marketing of more sophisticated analog circuitry economically feasible.

This led to a number of attempts to reduce tape hiss through the use of various forms of volume compression and expansion, the most notable and commercially successful being several systems developed by Dolby Laboratories. The Dolby systems were very successful at increasing the effective dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio of analog audio recording; to all intents and purposes, audible tape hiss could be eliminated. The original Dolby A was only used in professional recording. Successors found use in both professional and consumer formats; Dolby B became almost universal for prerecorded music on cassette. Subsequent forms, including Dolby C , and the short-lived Dolby S were developed for home use. In the s, digital recording methods were introduced, and analog tape recording was gradually displaced, although it has not disappeared by any means.

The digital audio tape never became important as a consumer recording medium partially due to legal complications arising from " piracy " fears on the part of the record companies. They had opposed magnetic tape recording when it first became available to consumers, but the technical difficulty of juggling recording levels, overload distortion, and residual tape hiss was sufficiently high that unlicensed reproduction of magnetic tape never became an insurmountable commercial problem.

With digital methods, copies of recordings could be exact, and copyright infringement might have become a serious commercial problem. Digital tape is still used in professional situations and the DAT variant has found a home in computer data backup applications.

When the war began, the country was mainly powered by agriculture. The Market Revolution was a time period early in the nineteenth century to describe the expansion of the marketplace. The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century Wikipedia, the The Pros And Cons Of Numeracy encyclopedia. Important Innovations and Inventions, Past and Present. The leading record labels switched to the electrical process in and the rest soon The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century, although one straggler in The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century US held out The Market Revolution: Early In The Nineteenth Century