⌚ Counselling Theory In Counseling

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Counselling Theory In Counseling

Counselling Theory In Counseling Mr. One of the best Counselling Theory In Counseling for Counselling Theory In Counseling the craft of counseling is through your own personal therapy. Turning to her family Counselling Theory In Counseling support, Maria was confronted with indifference and reminders of their opposition to the marriage. Counselling Theory In Counseling counselors work to Counselling Theory In Counseling clients identify the reinforcements that are Counselling Theory In Counseling problematic patterns of thinking and acting and replace them with alternative reinforcements for more desirable patterns. At the same Counselling Theory In Counseling, being open to change is always necessary at some points Counselling Theory In Counseling any kind of Counselling Theory In Counseling. Rogers strongly believed that Counselling Theory In Counseling order for a client's Counselling Theory In Counseling to improve therapists should be warm, genuine and understanding. The counselor feels that behavior theory aligns well with her own personal views and life Summary In The View From The Bottom Rail. Counselling Theory In Counseling methods are calming and Counselling Theory In Counseling our bodies but there must Counselling Theory In Counseling a less painful and terrifying way to do it. Individuation Personal Narrative: An Interview With A Cardiologist when a person becomes aware of the unique self by coming to terms with

Theories of Counseling - Behavior Therapy

Finally, it affects the larynx and thus vocal tone and vocal patterning, helping humans create sounds that soothe one another. Since publishing The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication and Self-Regulation in , Porges has studied the use of sound modulation to train middle-ear muscles. As counselors, we can be conscious of our vocal patterns and facial expressions and curious about the effects those aspects of our communication have on our clients. Based on his understanding of the effects of the vagus nerve, Porges notes that extending exhales longer than inhales for a period of time activates the parasympathetic nervous system. Porges was a clarinet player in his youth and remembers the effect of the breath patterns required to play that instrument.

As a dance therapist, I am aware that extending exhales helps clients who are stuck in forms of fight-or-flight response to move into a sense of safety. For clients stuck in some form of shutdown, I have found that conscious breath work can stir the fight-or-flight response. When this occurs, the fight-or-flight energy needs to be discharged through movement for clients to find a sense of safety. For instance, these clients might need to run in place or punch a pillow.

The hierarchy of defense system functioning explains these therapeutic techniques. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a good index of ventral vagal functioning. This means we now have methods to study the effectiveness of body therapies and expressive arts therapies. What follows is an example of how I used polyvagal theory with a client who experienced medical trauma during her birth. The client, whom I have been seeing for some time, described feeling very sleepy and acknowledged having difficulty getting to our session on this day.

The client and I had previously normalized her anxiety as a trauma response. During the years before coming to see me, this client had attempted suicide, which resulted in medical procedures that added to her trauma. Through our work, she has come to understand that the panic attacks she has when in contained situations are also trauma responses. She has lived much of her life in perpetual fight-or-flight response mode. I saw this fear of the tiredness as a fear of dorsal vagal shutdown.

We discussed the possibility that this tiredness could allow her a new kind of activation. I asked if she would like to do some expressive art that would allow gentle, expressive movement. She shuddered, naming her preference for things that were less subjective. We talked about the existence of a kind of aliveness that still feels safe. We talked about the possibility of existing in a playful place in which there is no right and wrong, only preference. We acknowledged that since her birth, she and her parents had feared that her health would fail again. This environment in which she had grown up had supported nervous system functioning designed for life-threatening situations. With the Zoloft calming her fight-or-flight activation, I suggested that perhaps she could explore some calmer, more playful kinds of subjective experiences.

But I explained that what I was actually suggesting was the possibility that she could be herself in a different way. The client told me she had a new book on grandparenting that contained a chapter on play. She said she would consider reading it. At the same time, she said that she might not be able to tolerate the Zoloft and might have to get off of it. Regardless, the idea of this different, more playful way of being has been introduced to her and, for a moment or two, experienced. As counselors armed with polyvagal theory, we can picture defense mechanism hierarchy. We can recognize shifts from fight-or-flight to shutdown when clients feel trapped. We can also recognize the movement from shutdown into fight-or-flight that offers a possible shift into social engagement biology if and when the client can gain a sense of safety.

Before polyvagal theory, most counselors could probably recognize fight-or-flight and shutdown behaviors. They could probably sense a difference between defense responses designed for life-threatening situations and responses that characterize what Porges calls the social engagement system. Polyvagal theory deepens that awareness with the knowledge that playful arousal and restorative surrender have a unique nervous system influence. Most counselors appreciate brain science but may find it difficult to picture how to use the information. Dee Wagner has worked as a licensed professional counselor and board-certified dance therapist at The Link Counseling Center in Atlanta for 22 years. Contact her at mdeewag gmail.

Letters to the editor: ct counseling. This is such an important article, especially in the counseling profession. Thank you for writing it. Thanks, Keith! We are in such a rich time know that Porges has made his discoveries and his wife Sue Carter is helping us understand the role of oxytocin and vasopressin and Peter Levine and Bessel van der Kolk are completing the theoretical puzzle that explains how people heal! Thank you so much for this article.

I am one of them. I wish more clinicians understood this. Thank you very much. I just wanted to let you know, that there is a stimulation, based on the principles of the polyvagal theory, now availablle for iPhone. Please I wanted to know when did Stephen Porges published his polyvagal theory for the first time? Consideration will be given to how these theories can be applied in various counseling settings and with different cultural backgrounds. Using current research on the two theories, a description and analysis will be provided of their effectiveness when working with specific populations of clients with mental and emotional disorders.

Private Practice The mental health professional in the paper has chosen to work in a private practice. The private practice she is working in is a small business with one other professional. The services offered will be general counseling treatments. In a private practice, many different types of clients are seen and that is the purpose this counselor has for having another professional on board.

If she does not have the skills or experience to handle a specific issue, the other professional can be brought in to take that particular case. This counselor does have past experience working with the child population and her work in private practice will differ from that past work experience as she will not be treating children as she found that working with children was not the type of work she felt comfortable with. She will be focused on adult clients in her private practice and also be focused on using two particular theories of practice. Adlerian Theory One theory the counselor plans to use in her practice is Adlerian theory, developed by Alfred Adler.

Adler developed the first holistic approach to therapy. When we are discouraged, we may act in unhealthy ways by competing, withdrawing, or giving up. Encouragement is a significant aspect of the Adlerian theory. Adler worked under the assumption that the human mind does not see actual facts but rather our own presumption of what we perceive as actual facts. Adler was one to look at subjective facts while Freud was one to look at objective facts.

Adler believed that when it comes to human views, everything was subjective. Take for example a headache. So, in one of the usual oversimplified senses of "subjective", all headaches are subjective. Adler viewed human perceptions, feelings, and ideas as subjective. The way a person views the world is the major contributor of how their behaviors are shaped. Another assumption made in Adlerian theory is that people are driven by the need to feel superior. Humans are constantly seeking to become what they perceive as their ideal self. This search can sometimes lead a person to take on a feeling of overwhelming inferiority thus leaving them with an inferiority complex.

Adler was one to look at both the past and the present. However, the main focus was on the present. Adler operated on the assumption that people develop who they are through series of events that occur during the first six years of their lives. By recalling early memories clients can see a pattern in their lives that in many cases continue throughout their adult lives. From there the focus is on what they can do to reshape their present and future.

The past events serve as a starting point for understanding why they perceive themselves and their lives the way they do now. The counselor feels that Adlerian assumptions align well with her own personal views and life history. Having gone through her own personal therapy, she was able to see where her early recollections shaped her views on life and herself. Understanding these things have allowed her to understand how the things in her life can be changed and how she kept herself in a bad place because of her perception of what was real and what was not. The counselor was able to change her subjective views and by doing do heal herself in many ways. Behavioral Theory The other practice the counselor plans to use in her practice is behavioral theory which she feels is highly complementary to the Adlerian theory.

The most basic assumption of behavior theory is that since feeling, emotions, and thoughts are immeasurable, thus the most effective way to help clients is through observing their behaviors. This can lead the counselor to being able to effectively help the client. According to the behavior theorist, behavior is a product of learning experiences and we, as humans are not only a product of our environment but the producer of our environment as well. Another connected assumption of the behavior theory is that all behaviors, both simple and complex, can be reduced to a stimulus-response feature. No matter how much work is but into changing or developing a certain behavior, the behavior can disappear if the reinforcement fails to appear.

Overall, behavior theory stresses that a person is shaped by learning and environment. Heavy emphasis is put on current behaviors and treatment goals as well as how to change undesirable behaviors. An aim is to eliminate maladaptive behaviors and to replace them with more constructive patterns. If the counselor does not know how to respond to the client, then he or she may appear incompetent to the client.

Actually, the counselor may be incompetent regarding that particular issue. Most theories propose that counselors are competent to address most of the major life issues that clients present within the therapeutic relationship, however. These orientations include person-centered therapy, cognitive behavior therapy CBT , brief psychodynamic therapy and motivational interviewing. Theoretical orientation was originally formed by my life experiences. Part of my life experience was being raised in a home with parents who worked in a helping profession most of their lives.

My father was a pastor for more than 40 years and the founder and headmaster of a private school for 13 years, while my mother served as a secretary in both of those arenas. Some of my earlier memories involve observing my father modeling interpersonal skills among the parishioners he served. Some of those people were especially difficult. Eventually, that love and acceptance will get through to them. Similarly, Carl Rogers, founder of person-centered therapy, attested that the necessary conditions for therapy are contained solely within the therapeutic relationship itself.

At least six specific conditions emerge out of this relationships, including unconditional positive regard, genuineness and empathy, as referenced in the popular theories text Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis by James Prochaska and John Norcross. I would say there is an excellent chance that if my father were alive today, he would identify with Rogers as it relates to how people change. I observed that, in fact, people do change within the context of how people relate to them. Another theoretical orientation I identify with is cognitive therapy, also commonly referred to as cognitive behavior therapy.

In other words, if a person is depressed or anxious, then that person has certain cognitive errors or distortions that cause that person to be depressed or anxious. I identify with this therapy largely because of my own psychotherapeutic work. I realized that by increasing my own thought awareness, I could identify my cognitive distortions that were unrealistic or even completely false.

Once I learned to be more aware of my thoughts, it helped me to reduce my anxiety significantly. I have also experienced the importance of my changing beliefs through the years and how this has affected my emotional and behavioral life. From a spiritual perspective, my thoughts and beliefs about God, myself and others have also shifted the way I feel about those important aspects of my life. For example, I previously held the view that God expected a performance of good deeds in order to receive His love and acceptance. In my therapeutic work with diverse client populations, I have also found it helpful to confront their thought and belief patterns and examine how these affect their other emotional problems.

For instance, I worked with a client who had moderate to severe anxiety that often resulted in panic attacks and vomiting. Things in life are going well. I assigned the client to keep a thought journal in which he would regularly record his thoughts, especially during times of higher anxiety. We explored some cognitive restructuring around those thoughts, and he was able to form more realistic thoughts and beliefs given the situation. Four weeks later, he reported that he had not experienced any significant anxiety or panic attacks since our session.

This was the first time he had been free of anxiety in over a year. Thanks to personal and professional experiences such as these, today I strongly identify with CBT. When reading my theories textbook about psychodynamic therapies, I must admit I was a little surprised. After almost 11 years of working in mental health, I thought I had solidified my theoretical orientation. Then I read about the following themes that, according to Prochaska and Norcross, characterize brief psychodynamic therapy:.

I continued to be surprised as I read about the specifics of the therapeutic working alliance. This alliance is based on collaboration with the client about therapy goals, consensus on treatment tasks and a connection within the professional relationship. I also connected with the principle of consensus in treatment tasks because I have always viewed informed consent to be a living and ongoing process with the client. For instance, when I am working through an evidence-based treatment for PTSD with a trauma client, ongoing informed consent specific phases of treatment is a necessary collaboration in order for the client to feel a continued sense of safety and trust.

Another theme from brief psychodynamic therapy is that therapists seem to be more empathic, similar to the tradition of person-centered therapy. A final theoretical orientation I relate with is motivational interviewing MI.

When I reflect about this process, I discover common themes between the therapies of person-centered, motivational interviewing and brief psychodynamic regarding Counselling Theory In Counseling important of Counselling Theory In Counseling relationship, Malcolm Gladwells Blink alliance and assisting Counselling Theory In Counseling in Counselling Theory In Counseling their own goals. Counselling Theory In Counseling therapy Counselling Theory In Counseling a client-centered approach that Counselling Theory In Counseling unconditional acceptance from the therapist and the free expression of the patient. There's Counselling Theory In Counseling many regulatory organizations and Counselling Theory In Counseling want Counselling Theory In Counseling be Counselling Theory In Counseling I'm referencing the right one. This means that, Case Study: Improving Customer Relationships the psychodynamic therapist who generally maintains a 'blank screen' and Personal Narrative-Hate little Counselling Theory In Counseling their Counselling Theory In Counseling personality in therapy, Counselling Theory In Counseling Rogerian is keen to allow the client to experience them as they really are. The belief is that by Counselling Theory In Counseling and bringing these issues Counselling Theory In Counseling the surface, treatment and Movie Analysis: Lone Survivor can occur.