✯✯✯ Case Study: The Chesapeake Bay
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Documentary: Life in the Chesapeake Bay
Key among these is sea level rise: water levels in the bay have already risen one foot, with a predicted increase of 1. With increases in flooding events and sea level rise, the 11, miles of coastline, which include significant historic buildings and modern infrastructure, will be at risk of erosion. Also, changes in the marine ecosystem due to climate change, such as ocean acidification and temperature increases, will put increasing pressure on marine life—decreasing dissolved oxygen, making it harder for shellfish to maintain shells, and changing the seasonal cycles important for breeding and other lifecycle activities.
Climate change adaptation and mitigation programs in Maryland and Virginia often include significant programs to address the communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Underwater archaeology is a subfield of archaeology that focuses on the exploration of submerged archaeological sites in seas, rivers, and other bodies of water. This was in response to the National Abandoned Shipwreck Act passed in , which gave ownership of historically significant shipwrecks to those states with proper management programs. Ranging from 12,year-old, precolonial native settlements to shipwrecks from as recent as World War II, the MMAP researches thousands of years worth of history in these archaeological sites.
Susan Langley has been Maryland's State Underwater Archaeologist, one of only nine state-appointed underwater archaeologists in the United States, since assuming the role in The Chesapeake Bay watershed has been heavily impacted by natural forces such as erosion, tides, and a history of hurricanes and other storms. Along with environmental factors, the bay has been negatively impacted by humans since being settled in the 17th century, bringing with them problems like pollution, construction, and destruction of the environment.
All of these circumstances have made it increasingly difficult for the MMAP to identify potential underwater archaeological sites. As sea levels rise and historically significant areas are sunk and covered in sediment, the MMAP relies on various pieces of equipment to locate these man-made anomalies but also ensure that the material being examined is kept intact. After locating the site, Langley and her team have a strict process in order to preserve the site and its contents, allowing more accurate and thorough research to be conducted.
The remains of nearly every site have been submerged in saltwater for sometimes centuries, the integrity of shipwrecks and other materials are fragile and careful precaution must be used when working with them. Taking photos and videos, creating maps, and constructing models are all a part of the process of preserving remains. Altogether there are more than 1, ship and boat wrecks that scatter the bottom of the Chesapeake Bay and its surrounding waterways. Along with the skull, a carved blade was also discovered in the same area. Unable to accurately carbon date the stone tool, archaeologists looked at similar styles of blade carving in order to gauge when it was made.
The technique was similar to the Solutrean tools that were crafted in Europe between 22, and 17, years ago and it was noted that the stone tool must be at least 14, years old. The Solutrean hypothesis challenges the previous theory regarding the first inhabitants of North America, whereas it is commonly accepted amongst anthropologists that the Clovis people were the first to settle the region somewhere around 13, years ago. There is some controversy surrounding these findings; many anthropologists have disputed this, claiming that the environment and setting make properly identifying the origins of these artifacts nearly impossible.
The Chesapeake Bay Flotilla , which was constructed using shallow barges and ships to provide a blockade to the British during the War of After holding strong for some months, the British eventually dispersed the flotilla and dozens of these vessels were burnt and sunk. Starting in , there were numerous expeditions launched in hopes of successfully discovering what was left of the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla. Since then, hundreds of artifacts and remains have been extracted from the submerged ships such as weapons, personal items, and many other objects.
Underwater archaeologists have also been successful in constructing accurate models and maps of the wreckage amongst the sea floor. In October , a British merchant ship arrived at the port of Annapolis loaded with tea disguised as linens and garments. The tea was hidden by the British to avoid conflict with the colonists as the recently imposed tea tax had created hostility and uncertainty among the colonies. Named Peggy Stewart , the British vessel arrived and attempted to tax the colonists for the purchased tea. The colonists refused to pay the tax and after a few days of public meetings, the colonists decided to burn Peggy Stewart and the contents of it. The British ship was sunk in what became known as the 'Annapolis Tea Party' and has since become an important site for underwater archaeologists in the Chesapeake Bay.
It was sunk the same year in the Potomac River off of the Chesapeake Bay following a high explosives test hosted by the U. Navy and has since been a popular site for underwater archaeologists. Maryland has controlled the majority of underwater archaeology research around the Chesapeake Bay; however, Virginia's Department of Historic Resources has had a State Underwater Archaeologist since the s. In , the Virginia Department of Historic Resources along with the first State Underwater Archaeologist, John Broadwater, led an expedition to explore and research a sunken fleet of Revolution-era battleships.
In September , during the Revolutionary War, the British intentionally sunk more than a dozen ships in the York River , near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Led by Lord Charles Cornwallis , a fleet of British ships was pushed back towards the rivers of the Chesapeake, in a desperate attempt to avoid surrendering, Cornwallis began burning and sinking his own vessels with the hopes of stalling the incoming French and American ships. Cornwallis was eventually forced to surrender on October 19 and the ships along with its contents were at the bottom of the York River. One of the British ships, called Betsy, has been explored more than any other and over 5, relics were removed from Betsy on their original expedition in , including weapons, personal objects, and some valuable metals.
Broadwater and his team were awarded a page article in the magazine National Geographic for their findings. Virginia has recently been granted funding for further research of these sunken vessels and expeditions are currently underway with the goal to fully explore this destroyed fleet of British ships. Unfortunately, following the publicity of these sunken ships, many divers have taken it upon themselves to explore the wreckage for 'treasure'.
There are several magazines and publications that cover topics directly related to the Chesapeake Bay and life and tourism within the Bay region. The Capital , a newspaper based in Annapolis, reports about news pertaining to the Western Shore of Maryland and the Annapolis area. What's Up Magazine is a free monthly publication with special issues focused on Annapolis and the Eastern Shore. Bay Weekly is the Chesapeake Bay region's independent newspaper. Singer and songwriter Tom Wisner recorded several albums, often about the Chesapeake Bay. The Boston Globe wrote that Wisner "always tried to capture the voice of the water and the sky, of the rocks and the trees, of the fish and the birds, of the gods of nature he believed still watched over it all.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Estuary in the U. The Chesapeake Bay — Landsat photo. Ramsar Wetland. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved Geological Survey. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on The Washington Post. ABC News.
Archived from the original on 2 April Delmarva Now. Sepi is also found in another placename of Algonquian origin, Mississippi. The name was soon transferred by the English from the big river and the village at that site to the entire bay. Stewart, George New York: Random House. Scientists Cliffs community. Archived from the original on January 7, Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Archived from the original on October 14, Other sources give values of 25 feet e.
Maryland State Archives. University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Archived from the original PDF on Chesapeake Bay Program Office. Map of the Chesapeake Bay and salinity zones. Salinity zones Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved 18 August Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Water Resources Investigations Report ". Retrieved 11 October USA Today. Chesapeake Bay Journal. Chesapeake Bay Program. Retrieved December 21, Are there sharks in the Chesapeake Bay? Retrieved on December The Baltimore Sun. February 27, July 15, Retrieved January 29, Sound Waves.
Archived from the original on November 4, Archived from the original on February 2, Associated Press. April 20, Emporia State University. May National Park Service ". Retrieved March 6, Retrieved 9 April Norfolk: The First Four Centuries. ISBN The Spanish Frontier in North America. National Park Service. Retrieved 12 June Retrieved December 16, Retrieved April 20, LaFollette, TN. Waterfront Heavy Industrial wi Successful Midwest Marina LaSalle County, Illinois. Successful Full Service Marina Deltaville, VA. State Dock Marina, KY Jamestown, KY. South Harbour Village Marina, Southport, NC. Islamorada, Florida Keys. Sardis Lake Marina — Mis Sardis, MS. Rockhold Creek Marina and Boat Deale, MD.
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In , the company announced its discovery of the Haynesville Shale in East Texas and northwestern Louisiana. In , the company partnered with Orange County Choppers to create the first chopper powered by compressed natural gas. In June , in response to shareholder concerns about corporate governance issues under McClendon's watch, the company appointed Archie W. The transaction included approximately , net acres and 1, wells in northern West Virginia and southern Pennsylvania. Net production of the sold assets was 57, barrels of oil equivalent per day in December In September , the company announced layoffs of hundreds of people in Oklahoma City.
On March 2, , former CEO and co-founder Aubrey McClendon died in a single-occupant single-vehicle crash when he drove his vehicle directly into a concrete bridge embankment in Oklahoma City. In January , the company laid off employees. After emerging from bankruptcy, the company regained modest favor in the stock market by May In mid, the U. Department of Justice DOJ began an investigation into whether Encana , Canada's largest natural gas company, "illegally colluded with Chesapeake Energy Corp to lower the price of Michigan exploration lands during a public land auction in May On June 5, , the state of Michigan filed felony fraud and racketeering charges against Chesapeake Energy, alleging that the company canceled hundreds of land leases on false pretenses after it sought to obtain oil and gas rights.
The company has faced thousands of lawsuits regarding the alleged under-payment of royalties due to individuals that rented land to the company. The next day, on March 2, , McClendon died in a single-occupant single-vehicle crash when he drove his vehicle straight into a concrete bridge embankment. These funds were cited as the reason Corbett won the election, with a narrow margin. When Corbett eventually became governor of Pennsylvania , he was very supportive of Chesapeake's fracking activity in Pennsylvania, and Pennsylvania was the only state without a severance tax on drillers, despite the fact that the budget for education was being reduced. The foundation was funded by the company and by McClendon. The foundation was criticized for doing nothing but pushing Congress to pass policies that benefited the company and McClendon's business interests.
On April 19, , due to a failed seal assembly in a wellhead , the company lost control of a natural gas well in Bradford County, Pennsylvania that was being fracture stimulated, causing a large spill of salt water and chemicals, such as 2-butoxyethanol and methanol , into the surrounding countryside. In , Oklahoma recorded a single earthquake.
After the advent of intense fracking , by there were more than It was tied for the largest such shock in the eastern United States in 70 years. In , Shaleplay, the company's corporate band, won first place in the Fortune Battle of the Corporate Bands. In , the company was ranked 51st on the Best Companies to Work by Fortune. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American energy company. This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Traded as.Bay Weekly is the Chesapeake Bay region's independent newspaper. Valuation and Strategic Case Study: The Chesapeake Bay. The Case Study: The Chesapeake Bay Loneliness In Siddhartha is home to numerous fauna that Case Study: The Chesapeake Bay migrate to the Bay at some point during Case Study: The Chesapeake Bay year or live there year-round.