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The Role Of Urbanization In Canada



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Effects of Urbanisation

Telephony, television broadcasts, news services and online service providers have played a crucial part in globalization. Former U. S president Lyndon B. Johnson was a supporter of the modernization theory and believed that television had potential to provide educational tools in development. With the many apparent positive attributes to globalization there are also negative consequences. The dominant, neoliberal model of globalization often increases disparities between a society's rich and its poor. Globalists are globalization modernization theorists and argue that globalization is positive for everyone, as its benefits must eventually extend to all members of society, including vulnerable groups such as women and children.

The relationship between modernization and democracy is one of the most researched studies in comparative politics. There is academic debate over the drivers of democracy because there are theories that support economic growth as both a cause and effect of the institution of democracy. Larry Diamond and Juan Linz , who worked with Lipset in the book, Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America , argue that economic performance affects the development of democracy in at least three ways. First, they argue that economic growth is more important for democracy than given levels of socioeconomic development. Second, socioeconomic development generates social changes that can potentially facilitate democratization.

Third, socioeconomic development promotes other changes, like organization of the middle class, which is conducive to democracy. As Seymour Martin Lipset put it, "All the various aspects of economic development—industrialization, urbanization, wealth and education—are so closely interrelated as to form one major factor which has the political correlate of democracy". Rostow , Politics and the Stages of Growth ; A. In the s, some critics argued that the link between modernization and democracy was based too much on the example of European history and neglected the Third World. One historical problem with that argument has always been Germany whose economic modernization in the 19th century came long before the democratization after Berman , however, concludes that a process of democratization was underway in Imperial Germany, for "during these years Germans developed many of the habits and mores that are now thought by political scientists to augur healthy political development".

Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel contend that the realization of democracy is not based solely on an expressed desire for that form of government, but democracies are born as a result of the admixture of certain social and cultural factors. They argue the ideal social and cultural conditions for the foundation of a democracy are born of significant modernization and economic development that result in mass political participation.

Peerenboom explores the relationships among democracy, the rule of law and their relationship to wealth by pointing to examples of Asian countries, such as Taiwan and South Korea, which have successfully democratized only after economic growth reached relatively high levels and to examples of countries such as the Philippines , Bangladesh , Cambodia , Thailand , Indonesia and India , which sought to democratize at lower levels of wealth but have not done as well. Adam Przeworski and others have challenged Lipset's argument. They say political regimes do not transition to democracy as per capita incomes rise.

Rather, democratic transitions occur randomly, but once there, countries with higher levels of gross domestic product per capita remain democratic. Epstein et al. Contrary to Przeworski, this study finds that the modernization hypothesis stands up well. Partial democracies emerge as among the most important and least understood regime types. A meta-analysis by Gerardo L. Munck of research on Lipset's argument shows that a majority of studies do not support the thesis that higher levels of economic development leads to more democracy. Highly contentious is the idea that modernization implies more human rights, with China in the 21st century being a major test case. New technology is a major source of social change. Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behaviour patterns and cultural values and norms.

Since modernization entails the social transformation from agrarian societies to industrial ones, it is important to look at the technological viewpoint; however, new technologies do not change societies by itself. Rather, it is the response to technology that causes change. Frequently, technology is recognized but not put to use for a very long time such as the ability to extract metal from rock [ citation needed ] Although that initially went unused, it later had profound implications for the developmental course of societies. Technology makes it possible for a more innovative society and broad social change. That dramatic change through the centuries that has evolved socially, industrially, and economically, can be summed up by the term modernization.

Cell phones, for example, have changed the lives of millions throughout the world. That is especially true in Africa and other parts of the Middle East , where there is a low-cost communication infrastructure. With cell phone technology, widely dispersed populations are connected, which facilitates business-to-business communication and provides internet access to remoter areas, with a consequential rise in literacy.

Development, like modernization, has become the orienting principle of modern times. Countries that are seen as modern are also seen as developed, which means that they are generally more respected by institutions such as the United Nations and even as possible trade partners for other countries. The extent to which a country has modernized or developed dictates its power and importance on the international level. Modernization of the health sector of developing nations recognizes that transitioning from ' traditional ' to 'modern' is not merely the advancement in technology and the introduction of Western practices; implementing modern healthcare requires the reorganization of political agenda and, in turn, an increase in funding by feeders and resources towards public health.

Additionally, a strong advocate of the DE-emphasis of medical institutions was Halfdan T. Related ideas have been proposed at international conferences such as Alma-Ats and the "Health and Population in Development" conference, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in Italy in , and selective primary healthcare and GOBI were discussed although they have both been strongly criticized by supporters of comprehensive healthcare. Modernization theorists often saw traditions as obstacles to economic growth.

According to Seymour Martin Lipset, economic conditions are heavily determined by the cultural, social values present in that given society. Critics insist that traditional societies were often destroyed without ever gaining the promised advantages if, among other things, the economic gap between advanced societies and such societies actually increased.

The net effect of modernization for some societies was therefore the replacement of traditional poverty by a more modern form of misery , according to these critics. President John F. Kennedy —63 relied on economists W. Rostow on his staff and outsider John Kenneth Galbraith for ideas on how to promote rapid economic development in the " Third World ", as it was called at the time. They promoted modernization models in order to reorient American aid to Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the Rostow version in his The Stages of Economic Growth progress must pass through five stages, and for underdeveloped world the critical stages were the second one, the transition, the third stage, the takeoff into self-sustaining growth.

Rostow argued that American intervention could propel a country from the second to the third stage he expected that once it reached maturity, it would have a large energized middle class that would establish democracy and civil liberties and institutionalize human rights. The result was a comprehensive theory that could be used to challenge Marxist ideologies, and thereby repel communist advances. Kennedy proclaimed the s the "Development Decade" and substantially increased the budget for foreign assistance. Modernization theory supplied the design, rationale, and justification for these programs. The goals proved much too ambitious, and the economists in a few years abandoned the European-based modernization model as inappropriate to the cultures they were trying to impact.

Kennedy and his top advisers were working from implicit ideological assumptions regarding modernization. Nunavut has an estimated population of 37, inhabitants. Despite its size in the area, Nunavut is least populated because of extremely harsh climatic conditions with land that is not arable. The harsh climate in Nunavut makes it hard for economic development which in turn limits the number of people moving in and out of the area thus resulting in low population density. Canada has three territories of Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.

Of the three territories, the Northwest Territories is the most populated accounting for 44, inhabitants followed by Yukon with 37,, and Nunavut which is the least populated region and territory in Canada with an estimated 37, population. The Canadian territories have low population densities because of their location in the northern part of the country characterized by limited arable land and harsh weather. Parts of the territories experience subarctic climates, and their landscapes are featureless with barren grounds, rock, ice and snow. The extreme northern parts of Canada comprise of frozen land that is inhabitable and due to its proximity to the Arctic, experiences 24 hours of sunlight in summer and 24 hours of darkness in winter.

Despite temperatures in the Canadian territories being subarctic most of the land is not arable because it is considered desert and suitable for the survival of only a few plant and animal species. Accessed April Archived PDF from the original on 17 January Retrieved 23 September Retrieved on Jobs, growth and poverty: what do we know, what don't we know, what should we know? Anthropogenic effects on the environment. Anthropocene Environmental issues list of issues Human impact on marine life List of global issues Impact assessment Planetary boundaries. Agriculture cannabis cultivation irrigation meat production cocoa production palm oil Energy industry biofuels biodiesel coal nuclear power oil shale petroleum reservoirs Genetic pollution Environmental crime Industrialisation Land use Manufacturing cleaning agents concrete plastics nanotechnology paint paper pesticides pharmaceuticals and personal care Marine life fishing fishing down the food web marine pollution overfishing Mining Overconsumption Overdrafting Overexploitation Overgrazing Particulates Pollution Quarrying Reservoirs Tourism Transport aviation roads shipping Urbanization urban sprawl War.

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Although Canada has a low population density on average, some regions are very dense, such as Southern Ontario. The Role Of Urbanization In Canada Presentation. The Role Of Urbanization In Canada on The Role Of Urbanization In Canada staff and military diet plan John Kenneth Galbraith for ideas on how to Griet: An Archetypal Hero rapid economic development in the " Third World ", as it was called at the time. American Journal of Political Science. The Role Of Urbanization In Canada Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy The Role Of Urbanization In Canada ed.