⚡ Graff Character Analysis

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Graff Character Analysis

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Xenogears Story Analysis (Ep.6) - State of the Arc Podcast

See also consumerism , critical theory. Those who generally view modernity as obsolete or an outright failure, a flaw in humanity's evolution leading to disasters like Auschwitz and Hiroshima , see postmodernity as a positive development. Other philosophers, particularly those seeing themselves as within the modern project , see the state of postmodernity as a negative consequence of holding postmodernist ideas. Postmodernity, the consequence of holding postmodern ideas, is generally a negative term in this context. Postmodernity is a condition or a state of being associated with changes to institutions and creations Giddens , and with social and political results and innovations, globally but especially in the West since the s, whereas postmodernism is an aesthetic, literary, political or social philosophy, the "cultural and intellectual phenomenon", especially since the s' new movements in the arts.

Both of these terms are used by philosophers, social scientists and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary culture, economics and society that are the result of features of late 20th century and early 21st century life, including the fragmentation of authority and the commoditization of knowledge see " Modernity ". The relationship between postmodernity and critical theory, sociology and philosophy is fiercely contested. The terms "postmodernity" and "postmodernism" are often hard to distinguish, the former being often the result of the latter.

The period has had diverse political ramifications: its "anti-ideological ideas" appear to have been associated with the feminist movement , racial equality movements, gay rights movements , most forms of late 20th century anarchism and even the peace movement as well as various hybrids of these in the current anti-globalization movement. Though none of these institutions entirely embraces all aspects of the postmodern movement in its most concentrated definition they all reflect, or borrow from, some of its core ideas.

Some authors, such as Lyotard and Baudrillard , believe that modernity ended in the late 20th century and thus have defined a period subsequent to modernity, namely postmodernity, while others, such as Bauman and Giddens , would extend modernity to cover the developments denoted by postmodernity. Others still contend that modernity ended with the Victorian Age in the s. Postmodernity has gone through two relatively distinct phases the first beginning in the late s and s and ending with the Cold War when analog media with limited bandwidth encouraged a few, authoritative media channels and the second beginning at the end of the Cold War marked by the spread of cable television and "new media" based on digital means of information dissemination and broadcast.

Television became the primary news source, manufacturing decreased in importance in the economies of Western Europe and the United States but trade volumes increased within the developed core. In — a crucial cultural explosion took place within the developed world as the baby boom generation, which had grown up with postmodernity as its fundamental experience of society, demanded entrance into the political, cultural and educational power structure.

A series of demonstrations and acts of rebellion — ranging from nonviolent and cultural, through violent acts of terrorism — represented the opposition of the young to the policies and perspectives of the previous age. Opposition to the Algerian War and the Vietnam War , to laws allowing or encouraging racial segregation and to laws which overtly discriminated against women and restricted access to divorce , increased use of marijuana and psychedelics , the emergence of pop cultural styles of music and drama, including rock music and the ubiquity of stereo , television and radio helped make these changes visible in the broader cultural context.

This period is associated with the work of Marshall McLuhan , a philosopher who focused on the results of living in a media culture and argued that participation in a mass media culture both overshadows actual content disseminated and is liberating because it loosens the authority of local social normative standards. The second phase of postmodernity is " digitality " — the increasing power of personal and digital means of communication including fax machines, modems, cable and high speed internet, which has altered the condition of postmodernity dramatically: digital production of information allows individuals to manipulate virtually every aspect of the media environment.

This has brought producers into conflict with consumers over intellectual capital and intellectual property and led to the creation of a new economy whose supporters argue that the dramatic fall in information costs will alter society fundamentally. Digitality, or what Esther Dyson referred to as "being digital", emerged as a separate condition from postmodernity. The ability to manipulate items of popular culture, the World Wide Web, the use of search engines to index knowledge, and telecommunications were producing a "convergence" marked by the rise of " participatory culture " in the words of Henry Jenkins.

One demarcation point of this era is the collapse of the Soviet Union and the liberalization of China in Francis Fukuyama wrote " The End of History " in in anticipation of the fall of the Berlin wall. He predicted that the question of political philosophy had been answered, that large scale wars over fundamental values would no longer arise since "all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs satisfied. The debate on postmodernity has two distinct elements that are often confused; 1 the nature of contemporary society and 2 the nature of the critique of contemporary society. The first of these elements is concerned with the nature of changes that took place during the late 20th century. There are three principal analyses.

Theorists such as Callinicos and Calhoun offer a conservative position on the nature of contemporary society, downplaying the significance and extent of socio-economic changes and emphasizing a continuity with the past. Second a range of theorists have tried to analyze the present as a development of the "modern" project into a second, distinct phase that is nevertheless still "modernity": this has been termed the "second" or "risk" society by Ulrich Beck , "late" or "high" modernity by Giddens , , "liquid" modernity by Zygmunt Bauman , and the "network" society by Castells , Third are those who argue that contemporary society has moved into a literally post-modern phase distinct from modernity.

The most prominent proponents of this position are Lyotard and Baudrillard. Another set of issues concerns the nature of critique, often replaying debates over what can be crudely termed universalism and relativism , where modernism is seen to represent the former and postmodernity the latter. Seyla Benhabib and Judith Butler pursue this debate in relation to feminist politics, Benhabib arguing that postmodern critique comprises three main elements; an anti-foundationalist concept of the subject and identity, the death of history and of notions of teleology and progress, and the death of metaphysics defined as the search for objective truth.

Benhabib argues forcefully against these critical positions, holding that they undermine the bases upon which feminist politics can be founded, removing the possibility of agency, the sense of self-hood and the appropriation of women's history in the name of an emancipated future. The denial of normative ideals removes the possibility for utopia, central for ethical thinking and democratic action. Butler responds to Benhabib by arguing that her use of postmodernism is an expression of a wider paranoia over anti-foundationalist philosophy, in particular, poststructuralism.

In reality, these movements are opposed: Lacanian psychoanalysis in France positions itself officially against poststructuralism, that Foucauldian rarely relate to Derridideans Lyotard champions the term, but he cannot be made into the example of what all the rest of the purported postmodernists are doing. Butler uses the debate over the nature of the post-modernist critique to demonstrate how philosophy is implicated in power relationships and defends poststructuralist critique by arguing that the critique of the subject itself is the beginning of analysis, not the end, because the first task of enquiry is the questioning of accepted "universal" and "objective" norms.

The Benhabib-Butler debate demonstrates that there is no simple definition of a postmodern theorist as the very definition of postmodernity itself is contested. Michel Foucault rejected the label of postmodernism explicitly in interviews yet is seen by many, such as Benhabib, as advocating a form of critique that is "postmodern" in that it breaks with utopian and transcendental "modern" critiques by calling universal norms of the Enlightenment into question. Giddens rejects this characterisation of "modern critique", pointing out that a critique of Enlightenment universals was central to philosophers of the modern period, most notably Nietzsche.

Jameson views a number of phenomena as distinguishing postmodernity from modernity. He speaks of "a new kind of superficiality " or "depthlessness" in which models that once explained people and things in terms of an "inside" and an "outside" such as hermeneutics , the dialectic , Freudian repression , the existentialist distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity, and the semiotic distinction of signifier and signified have been rejected. Second is a rejection of the modernist " Utopian gesture", evident in Van Gogh, of the transformation through art of misery into beauty whereas in the postmodernism movement the object world has undergone a "fundamental mutation" so that it has "now become a set of texts or simulacra " Jameson Graff sees the origins of this transformative mission of art in an attempted substitution of art for religion in giving meaning to the world that the rise of science and Enlightenment rationality had removed — but in the postmodern period this is seen as futile.

The third feature of the postmodern age that Jameson identifies is the "waning of affect" — not that all emotion has disappeared from the postmodern age but that it lacks a particular kind of emotion such as that found in " Rimbaud 's magical flowers 'that look back at you'". He notes that " pastiche eclipses parody " as "the increasing unavailability of the personal style" leads to pastiche becoming a universal practice. Jameson argues that distance "has been abolished" in postmodernity, that we "are submerged in its henceforth filled and suffused volumes to the point where our now postmodern bodies are bereft of spatial co-ordinates".

This "new global space" constitutes postmodernity's "moment of truth". The various other features of the postmodern that he identifies "can all now be seen as themselves partial yet constitutive aspects of the same general spatial object". The postmodern era has seen a change in the social function of culture. He identifies culture in the modern age as having had a property of "semi-autonomy", with an "existence… above the practical world of the existent" but, in the postmodern age, culture has been deprived of this autonomy, the cultural has expanded to consume the entire social realm so that all becomes "cultural".

The "prodigious new expansion of multinational capital ends up penetrating and colonizing those very pre-capitalist enclaves Nature and the Unconscious which offered extraterritorial and Archimedean footholds for critical effectivity". Jameson Postmodern sociology can be said to focus on conditions of life which became increasingly prevalent in the late 20th century in the most industrialized nations, including the ubiquity of mass media and mass production, the rise of a global economy and a shift from manufacturing to service economies. Bad news: Paranoia sank without a trace, and deservedly so. Business ethics and airport-novel pulp collide, and the mistake everybody in Paranoia makes is taking this nonsense seriously. But it is worth noting how comfortable and commanding Ford is, just a year after Star Wars , effortlessly stealing the screen from more experienced actors like Robert Shaw, Franco Nero, Richard Kiel, and Edward Fox.

The film was a commercial disappointment. Based on the Orson Scott Card book, it was one of several YA adaptations that Hollywood launched in the hopes of snagging some of that Hunger Games audience. Still, on all fronts, this is far, far away from Star Wars. Ford plays a Russian submarine captain who deals with a radiation leak with officers Liam Neeson and Peter Sarsgaard. This political romantic thriller features Ford as a police sergeant who discovers that his wife has perished in a plane crash alongside the man with whom she was having an affair. Initially, he was going to play the judge turned drug czar part in the Oscar-winning Traffic that ultimately went to Michael Douglas. Another recent Ford project that should have been way more delightful, Morning Glory stars Rachel McAdams as a perky TV producer who has to revive the fortunes of a fading morning show called DayBreak.

He has fun with it! You wish he would have tried stuff like this a little more often. It was, instead, the Anne Heche Is a Lesbian in a Straight Romantic Comedy Movie, which led to a frankly rather embarrassing press tour, in which a series of men on talk shows asked Ford whether it was weird to pretend to be in love with a lesbian. Ford, to his credit or to his detriment, did not point out that he was not, in fact, in love with every woman he kissed in a movie.

They were just acting. He even has some affecting moments as a man trying to run away from his past before realizing what his purpose ultimately was for. Either by choice or because it was dictated by audience indifference, Ford had stopped doing leading roles around the time of 42 , becoming a grizzled character actor that would lend a little old-school star power to a project. This biopic of Jackie Robinson Chadwick Boseman is pretty paint-by-numbers, reducing an inspirational and supremely talented ballplayer to feel-good Hollywood formula. Ford teams with Brad Pitt in a drama about a New York City cop Ford who takes in an IRA freedom fighter Pitt without realizing his political affiliations, and the complications that arise.

Ford wins, but Pitt would live to battle another day. He and wife Michelle Pfeiffer are being haunted in their comfortable Connecticut home by … something. But as soon as Adaline and William meet, he realizes this is the same woman who captured his heart so long ago, before she had to abandon him, lest he learn her secret. The Age of Adaline is fluffy nonsense about fate and unrequited love, but Ford captures all the pain of a man who grew up, settled into a life, then rediscovers the one person who once gave it such meaning.

As a romantic figure, the actor tends to be more of a swashbuckler than a sensitive soul, but this was one of those rewarding exceptions. Sabrina is the action hero in heartthrob mode, and here it suits him. Regarding Henry is a simplistic, rather mawkish story about a hotshot lawyer Ford who suffers brain damage after being caught in the crossfire of a bodega robbery and has to learn how to reconnect with his wife Annette Bening and his family.

And the scene where he is shot by John Leguizamo! Only those involved know, but the switch of stars fundamentally changed the conception of this character: No longer was he a wonky, brilliant underdog — now, he was Harrison Ford, action hero. Patriot Games and Clear and Present Danger were as close as the actor got to his own Bond franchise, and he invests the role with plenty of macho urgency and patriotic fervor. Melanie Griffith is so delightful and fantastic in this movie that it looked briefly like she was going to be the biggest movie star in the world. Not all the gender politics might hold up today, but the message is still a strong one, and the movie is funny, sharp, and willing to get its hands a little dirty.

Even if that title is not so great. The movie is all shadows and sinister implications, both believing in the court system it dramatizes while remaining deeply skeptical of it. In other words, the Blade Runner films are his one franchise where he gets to try on the character in a new way, rather than just putting on the old suit one more time. Ford plays him as that one older kid that always tormented you in school — not by beating you up, but by just letting you know that he had your number. And unlike so many bullies, Falfa gets his comeuppance in the end. With each passing year, The Fugitive feels more and more like a Hollywood anomaly.

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