✯✯✯ Pros And Cons Of Chemical Castration

Friday, November 26, 2021 12:52:35 PM

Pros And Cons Of Chemical Castration

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Pigs grow fastest on this type of ration. Unfortunately, most commercial hog grower formulas contain corn and soy which is probably GMO. A lot of them also contain medications. Another option to is to make your own feed from a grain and protein source or find a natural pre-made feed in your area. In addition to pre-made feed, pigs love all types of produce. You can even grow crops specifically for your pigs like mangels, forage turnips, beets and pumpkin.

On our farm we feed a locally sourced barley and peas combination with added swine minerals. Our pigs also get lots of fresh milk, table scraps and local apples and pumpkins. Please do not feed your pigs bakery scraps and the like and expect a healthy pig with great tasting meat. You eat what your pig eats so quality matters. Demand vs measured feeding — Another thing to consider when raising pigs is whether to set up a self feeder and let the pigs eat whenever they want or feed them a set amount each day.

There are pros and cons for both. Demand feeding makes the daily workload smaller except on the day when you have to fill the pig feeder. Also, if pigs always have food available they will be less likely to root as much and so your ground stays in better shape. Pigs who are demand fed also tend to grow faster so your time to maturity is less. The problem with demand feeding is that pigs can eat a LOT of food and this can get expensive, especially as the pigs get older. We have found that if you are only raising one or two pigs demand feeding is the way to go. Its when you are raising 10 or more that it can become cost prohibitive. We give each of our piglets 5 lbs of their grain mixture each day.

In addition to this they get milk, table scraps and produce. This allows us to have market weight pigs at around 8 months or so. Medicines and de-worming — I am not a fan of chemical de-wormers because of the mutations and resistances they create. On our farm we have found garlic to be a much more effective de-wormer anyway. We add approximately 1 lb of garlic granules to one ton of feed. In addition, oregano oil is also superb at fighting parasites and infection. Finally, we keep geranium essential oil handy for bleeding pigs can get in scuffles and tea tree oil for cuts and scrapes. To castrate or not? There are many who find the practice cruel and unnecessary but others who say it needs to be done to prevent boar taint.

If you are raising two male pigs you will need to determine whether you want to have this procedure done. However, when you are raising piglets of opposite sex its wise to go ahead and castrate. Bad advice and we ended up with pregnant market pigs. We now castrate all male piglets raised for meat. Breeds matter — Different breeds of pigs have different qualities, including differences in size, meat quality and temperament. These are things you will want to investigate when choosing your piglets.

We raise heritage breeds of pigs Gloucester Old Spot, American Guinea Hog, Tamworth because of their docile and friendly temperaments and excellent meat quality. Butcher weight and hanging weight — Most pigs are butchered when they weigh around lbs live. This will result in a hanging weight meat and bones minus the head, feet and organs ranging from lbs. How much meat you end up with in your freezer is totally dependent on the types of cuts you choose during processing. Should you call the butcher? We have butchered many a pig on our farm.

Once you learn to do it its not that hard. The whole process takes about 3 days. The first day is the kill and hang, the second is skinning and cutting up the pieces, the third is usually sausage processing. The benefits of butchering yourself is the know-how and the cost savings. Taste is superior — Finally, why would you want to go to all the work of raising your own pork? By raising your own you control what they eat which makes for a healthier product for your family. Also, raising pigs is a lot of fun and I love to watch their antics.

However, I find the best reason for raising homestead pork is the taste. Once you try it you will never want supermarket pork again.. Do you have a question about raising pigs? You can email me at [email protected]. Amy is is a wife and mother of 18 children. Thank you for all these tips, Amy! So much to learn and this was so helpful! Is there a risk for bacteria in the garden area if you allow the pigs to stay there over the winter? I am very interested in moving them around, if possible! Also, we live in a very hilly area; what are your thoughts on letting them run up and down the hills? Thank you! I just bought my 2 acre farm last February brought our first two feeders home today.

They are7 week old yorkshire and Duroc cross and appear to be extremely healthy. I want to do the best by them. Since the central and transitional zones cannot be distinguished from each other, they can be best described as the central gland on MRI. Thus, the peripheral gland has a higher signal on T2WI than the central gland. In the peripheral gland, prostate cancer appears as a low-intensity lesion. However, in the central gland, low-intensity lesions cannot be distinguished from the low-intensity central gland.

Diffusion restriction is instrumental in identifying and characterizing central gland lesions. Combined diffusion-weighted DW imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for distinguish malignant from benign prostate lesions can be used. The merged images, of DW and MRI with dynamic contrast enhancement, can visualise areas with low signal intensity and fast wash-out effect - characteristic of carcinomas. Other regions can be described on MRI. The anterior fibromuscular stroma and the prostate capsule along the posterior and lateral prostate have a low T2WI signal, in contrast with the bright signal of the peripheral zone.

Extraprostatic extension can be seen with disruption of capsule integrity. Following an MRI, regions of interest within the scan which may be cancer are often graded on a likelihood scale between 1 and 5. Prostate MRI is also used for surgical planning for robotic prostatectomy. It helps surgeons decide whether to resect or spare the neurovascular bundle, determine return to urinary continence, and help assess surgical difficulty. The biological properties which determine whether or not a tumour is visible on MRI is poorly understood. One theory is that tumour cells undergo several genetic changes during transformation which alter the cellular rate of growth and formation of new blood vessels, leading to tumours with more aggressive histological patterns, hypoxic regions and increased cell density among other features.

Some studies have linked the presence of rare histological patterns within the tumour such as cribriform pattern. Ultrasound imaging can be obtained transrectally and is used during prostate biopsies. On Color Doppler, the lesions appear hypervascular. If cancer is suspected, a biopsy is offered expediently. During a biopsy, a urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via either the rectum or the perineum.

Prostate biopsies are routinely done on an outpatient basis and rarely require hospitalization. Antibiotics should be used to prevent complications such as fever , urinary tract infections , and sepsis [92] even if the most appropriate course or dose is undefined. A histopathologic diagnosis mainly includes assessment of whether a cancer exists, as well as any subdiagnosis, if possible. Histopathologic subdiagnosis has implications for the possibility and methodology of Gleason scoring. Alkaline phosphatase is more elevated in metastatic than non-metastatic cells. The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis and helps guide therapy.

A Gleason score is based upon the tumor's appearance. Pathological scores range from 2 through 10, with a higher number indicating greater risks and higher mortality. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasized. The oncoprotein BCL-2 is associated with the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, due to its high levels of expression in androgen-independent tumours in advanced stages. The upregulation of BCL-2 after androgen ablation in prostate carcinoma cell lines and in a castrated-male rat model further established a connection between BCL-2 expression and prostate cancer progression.

An important part of evaluating prostate cancer is determining the stage , or degree of spread. Knowing the stage helps define prognosis and is useful when selecting therapies. Its components include the size of the tumor, the number of involved lymph nodes , and the presence of any other metastases. The most important distinction made by any staging system is whether the cancer is confined to the prostate. Several tests can be used to look for evidence of spread. Medical specialty professional organizations recommend against the use of PET scans , CT scans , or bone scans when a physician stages early prostate cancer with low risk for metastasis.

Bone scans should reveal osteoblastic appearance due to increased bone density in the areas of bone metastasis —the reverse of what is found in many other metastatic cancers. After a biopsy, a pathologist examines the samples under a microscope. If cancer is present, the pathologist reports the grade of the tumor. The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from normal prostate tissue and suggests how fast the tumor is likely to grow.

The pathologist assigns a Gleason number from 1 to 5 for the most common pattern observed under the microscope, then does the same for the second-most common pattern. The sum of these two numbers is the Gleason score. The Whitmore-Jewett stage is another method. The data on the relationship between diet and prostate cancer are poor. Fish may lower prostate-cancer deaths, but does not appear to affect occurrence. Regular exercise may slightly lower risk, especially vigorous activity. In those who are regularly screened, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride reduce the overall risk of prostate cancer. Data are insufficient to determine if they affect fatality risk and they may increase the chance of more serious cases. Prostate cancer screening searches for cancers in those without symptoms.

Options include the digital rectal exam and the PSA blood test. American Urological Association AUA guidelines call for weighing the uncertain benefits of screening against the known harms associated with diagnostic tests and treatment. The AUA recommends that shared decision-making should control screening for those 55 to 69, and that screening should occur no more often than every two years. The first decision is whether treatment is needed. Low-grade forms found in elderly men often grows so slowly that treatment is not required. Approaches in which treatment is postponed are termed "expectant management". Which option is best depends on disease stage, the Gleason score, and the PSA level. Other important factors are age, general health and a person's views about potential treatments and their possible side effects.

Because most treatments can have significant side effects , such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence , treatment discussions often focus on balancing the goals of therapy with the risks of lifestyle alterations. A review found that more research focused on person-centered outcomes is needed to guide patients. Guidelines for specific clinical situations require estimation of life expectancy. Therefore, interest grew in aggressive treatment modalities such as surgery or radiation even for localized disease. Alternatively, an item questionnaire was proposed to learn whether patients have adequate knowledge and understanding of their treatment options.

In one study, most of those who were newly diagnosed correctly answered fewer than half of the questions. Many men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer are eligible for active surveillance. The tumor is carefully observed over time, with the intention of initiating treatment if signs of progression appear. Active surveillance is not synonymous with watchful waiting , a term which implies no treatment or specific program of monitoring, with the assumption that only palliative treatment would be used if advanced, symptomatic disease develops.

Active surveillance involves monitoring the tumor for growth or symptoms, which trigger treatment. This approach is not used for aggressive cancers, and may cause anxiety for people who wrongly believe that all cancers are deadly or that their condition is life-threatening. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are available, but treatment can be difficult, and combinations can be used. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are often reserved for metastatic disease. Exceptions include local or metastasis-directed therapy with radiation may be used for advanced tumors with limited metastasis. Cryotherapy the process of freezing the tumor , hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy may be offered if initial treatment fails and the cancer progresses.

Sipuleucel-T , a cancer vaccine , was reported to offer a four-month increase in survival in metastatic prostate cancer, [] but the marketing authorisation for it was withdrawn on 19 May If radiation therapy fails, radical prostatectomy may be an option, [] though it is a technically challenging surgery. Non-surgical treatment may involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, external beam radiation therapy, and particle therapy , high-intensity focused ultrasound, or some combination.

Prostate cancer that persists when testosterone levels are lowered by hormonal therapy is called castrate-resistant prostate cancer CRPC. Previously considered "hormone-refractory prostate cancer" or "androgen-independent prostate cancer", the term CRPC emerged because these cancers show reliance upon hormones, particularly testosterone, for androgen receptor activation. The cancer chemotherapeutic docetaxel has been used as treatment for CRPC with a median survival benefit of 2 to 3 months. The second line hormonal therapy abiraterone increases survival by about 4. Both abiraterone and enzalutamide are currently in clinical trials in those with CRPC who have not previously received chemotherapy.

Not all patients respond to androgen signaling-blocking drugs. Certain cells with characteristics resembling stem cells remain unaffected. For patients with metastatic prostate cancer that has spread to their bones, doctors use a variety of bone-modifying agents to prevent skeletal complications and support the formation of new bone mass. Radical prostatectomy is considered the mainstay of surgical treatment of prostate cancer, where the surgeon removes the prostate, seminal vesicles , and surrounding lymph nodes. It can be done by an open technique a skin incision at the lower abdomen , or laparoscopically.

Radical retropubic prostatectomy is the most commonly used open surgical technique. Transurethral resection of the prostate is the standard surgical treatment for benign enlargement of the prostate. The procedure is done under spinal anesthesia, a resectoscope is inserted inside the penis and the extra prostatic tissue is cut to clear the way for the urine to pass. The two main complications encountered after prostatectomy and prostate radiotherapy are erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence , mainly stress-type. Most men regain continence within 6 to 12 months after the operation, so doctors usually wait at least one year before resorting to invasive treatments. Stress urinary incontinence usually happens after prostate surgery or radiation therapy due to factors that include damage to the urethral sphincter or surrounding tissue and nerves.

The prostate surrounds the urethra, a muscular tube that closes the urinary bladder. Any of the mentioned reasons can lead to incompetent closure of the urethra and hence incontinence. More invasive surgical treatment can include the insertion of a urethral sling or an artificial urinary sphincter , which is a mechanical device that mimics the function of the urethral sphincter, and is activated manually by the patient through a switch implanted in the scrotum. The latter is considered the gold standard in patients with moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence.

Erectile dysfunction happens in different degrees in nearly all men who undergo prostate cancer treatment, including radiotherapy or surgery; however, within one year, most of them will notice improvement. If nerves were damaged, this progress may not take place. Pharmacological treatment includes PDE-5 inhibitors such as viagra or cialis , or injectable intracavernous drugs injected directly into the penis prostaglandin E1 and vasoactive drug mixtures.

Other nonpharmacological therapy includes vacuum constriction devices and penile implants. Many prostate cancers are not destined to be lethal, and most men will ultimately not die as a result of the disease. Mortality varies widely across geography and other elements. In patients who undergo treatment, the most important clinical prognostic indicators of disease outcome are the stage, pretherapy PSA level, and Gleason score.

The higher the grade and the stage, the poorer the prognosis. Nomograms can be used to calculate the estimated risk of the individual patient. The predictions are based on the experience of large groups of patients. After remission, an androgen-independent phenotype typically emerges, wherein the median overall survival is 23—37 months from the time of initiation of androgen ablation therapy. Several tools are available to help predict outcomes, such as pathologic stage and recurrence after surgery or radiation therapy. Life expectancy projections are averages for an entire male population, and many medical and lifestyle factors modify these numbers.

For example, studies have shown that a year-old man will lose 3. If he is both overweight and a smoker, he will lose 6. No evidence shows that either surgery or beam radiation has an advantage over the other in this regard. The lower death rates reported with surgery appear to occur because surgery is more likely to be offered to younger men with less severe cancers. Insufficient information is available to determine whether seed radiation extends life more readily than the other treatments, but data so far do not suggest that it does.

Men with low-grade disease Gleason 2—4 were unlikely to die of prostate cancer within 15 years of diagnosis. Men with high-grade disease Gleason 8—10 experienced high mortality within 15 years of diagnosis, regardless of their age. Rates vary widely between countries. The average annual incidence rate of prostate cancer between and among Chinese men in the United States was 15 times higher than that of their counterparts living in Shanghai and Tianjin, [] [] [] but these high rates may be affected by higher rates of detection. Prostate cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in men, exceeded by lung cancer and colorectal cancer.

Cases ranged from an estimated , in [] to an estimated , In Deaths held steady around 30, in [] and 29, in Age-adjusted incidence rates increased steadily from through , with particularly dramatic increases associated with the spread of PSA screening in the late s, later followed by a fall in incidence. Declines in mortality rates in certain jurisdictions may reflect the interaction of PSA screening and improved treatment. The estimated lifetime risk is about Prostate cancer is more common in the African American population than the White American population.

Prostate cancer is the third-leading type of cancer in Canadian men. In , around 4, died and 21, men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. In Europe in , it was the third-most diagnosed cancer after breast and colorectal cancers at , cases. In the United Kingdom, it is the second-most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer, where around 35, cases are diagnosed every year, of which around 10, are fatal. The first treatments were surgeries to relieve urinary obstruction.

Removal of the gland was first described in , [] and radical perineal prostatectomy was first performed in by Hugh H. Young at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Surgical removal of the testes orchiectomy to treat prostate cancer was first performed in the s, with limited success. Transurethral resection of the prostate TURP replaced radical prostatectomy for symptomatic relief of obstruction in the middle of the 20th century because it could better preserve penile erectile function. Radical retropubic prostatectomy was developed in by Patrick Walsh. In , Charles B. Huggins published studies in which he used estrogen to oppose testosterone production in men with metastatic prostate cancer.

GnRH receptor agonists, such as leuprorelin and goserelin , were subsequently developed and used to treat prostate cancer. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer was first developed in the early 20th century and initially consisted of intraprostatic radium implants. External beam radiotherapy became more popular as stronger [X-ray] radiation sources became available in the middle of the 20th century. Brachytherapy with implanted seeds for prostate cancer was first described in Systemic chemotherapy for prostate cancer was first studied in the s.

The initial regimen of cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was quickly joined by regimens using other systemic chemotherapy drugs. Men with prostate cancer generally encounter significant disparities in awareness, funding, media coverage, and research—and therefore, inferior treatment and poorer outcomes—compared to other cancers of equal prevalence. Waiting time between referral and diagnosis was two weeks for breast cancer but three months for prostate cancer. A report by the U. The Times also noted an "anti-male bias in cancer funding" with a four-to-one discrepancy in the United Kingdom by both the government and by cancer charities such as Cancer Research UK.

Disparities extend into detection, with governments failing to fund or mandate prostate cancer screening while fully supporting breast cancer programs. For example, a report found 49 U. Prostate cancer experiences significantly less media coverage than other, equally prevalent cancers, outcovered 2. Prostate Cancer Awareness Month takes place in September in a number of countries. A light blue ribbon is used to promote the cause.

Enzalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen NSAA. Alpharadin uses bone targeted Radium isotopes to kill cancer cells by alpha radiation. AR belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family. Development of the prostate is dependent on androgen signaling mediated through AR, and AR is also important for disease progression. Molecules that could successfully target alternative domains have emerged. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase has been identified as playing a significant role in the survival of prostate cancer cells.

Galectin-3 is another potential target. The PIM kinase family is another potential target for selective inhibition. A number of related drugs are under development. It has been suggested the most promising approach may be to co-target this family with other pathways including PI3K. Scientists have established prostate cancer cell lines to investigate disease progression. The LNCaP cancer cell line was established from a human lymph node metastatic lesion of prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC-3 and DU cells were established from human prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to bone and to brain, respectively. The Prostate Cancer Free Foundation, reviews the results of hundreds of thousands of men treated for prostate cancer.

Tracking them for years. This information is available to you, and others like you, to help find the best prostate cancer treatment. This work takes time, effort, resources all of it done by volunteers. Please help us continue. Please Donate! First Name. Last Name. How Do You Choose? Compare Treatments. Get The Study. Surgery Surgical treatment for prostate cancer involves removing the entire prostate as well as the seminal vesicles, a procedure called radical prostatectomy. Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is either a non-invasive, or minimally invasive treatment for prostate cancer that uses x-rays or gamma-rays to eradicate prostate cancer cells.

High Dose Rate Radiation High dose rate HDR brachytherapy is a procedure similar to seed brachytherapy, but instead of permanently placing radioactive seeds into the prostate, catheters are attached to empty needles placed into the prostate and a highly radioactive source is placed temporarily for approximately minutes into the needles to deliver radiation to the prostate. Other Prostate Cancer Treatments. Cryotherapy Cryotherapy also called cryoablation or cryosurgery can be used to treat localized prostate cancer by freezing the cancerous cells. This procedure is performed under general or spinal anesthesia and may be performed as an outpatient or may require an overnight stay.

The probes are placed through skin incisions located between the anus and scrotum. Guidance and monitoring of therapy is performed using transrectal ultrasound. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy utilizes drugs injected intravenously or by mouth to stop the growth of cancer cells. Have you or a loved one been recently diagnosed with prostate cancer? We've reviewed the data from over , patients so you can compare your treatment options and talk to your doctors about the results. Prostate Cancer Free Thirty Six Prostate Cancer Experts have analyzed the treatment outcomes of over , patients across the globe, following these patients for up to 15 years.

What is Prostate Cancer? Learn More. Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer? What tests confirm the presence of prostate cancer? Learn how doctors diagnose prostate cancer.

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