⒈ How To Colonize Mars

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How To Colonize Mars

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THE FIRST 10,000 DAYS ON MARS (Timelapse)

In the United Nations Outer Space Treaty , it was determined that no country may take claim to space or its inhabitants. Since the planet Mars offers a challenging environment and dangerous obstacles for humans to overcome, the laws and culture on the planet will most likely be very different from those on Earth. Space colonization in general has been discussed as continuation of imperialism and colonialism , [] especially regarding Mars colonial decision making and reasons for colonial labor [] and land exploitation have been questioned with postcolonial critique. Seeing the need for inclusive [] and democratic participation and implementation of any space and Mars exploration, infrastructure, or colonialization, many have called for dramatic sociological reforms and guarantees to prevent racism, sexism, and other forms of prejudice and bigotry.

The narrative of space exploration as a " New Frontier " has been criticized as unreflected continuation of settler colonialism and manifest destiny , continuing the narrative of colonial exploration as fundamental to the assumed human nature. The predominant perspective of territorial colonization in space has been called surfacism , especially comparing advocacy for colonization of Mars opposed to Venus. One possible ethical challenge that space travelers might face is that of pregnancy during the trip. According to NASA's policies, it is forbidden for members of the crew to engage in sex in space. NASA wants its crewmembers to treat each other like coworkers would in a professional environment.

A pregnant member on a spacecraft is dangerous to all those aboard. The pregnant woman and child would need additional nutrition from the rations aboard, as well as special treatment and care. The pregnancy would impede on the pregnant crew member's duties and abilities. It is still not fully known how the environment in a spacecraft would affect the development of a child aboard. It is known however that an unborn child in space would be more susceptible to solar radiation, which would likely have a negative effect on its cells and genetics.

Mars colonization is advocated by several non-governmental groups for a range of reasons and with varied proposals. Mars to Stay advocates recycling emergency return vehicles into permanent settlements as soon as initial explorers determine permanent habitation is possible. Elon Musk founded SpaceX with the long-term goal of developing the technologies that will enable a self-sustaining human colony on Mars. I think it is absolutely realistic. It will happen I think over the next 20 years," [from ] "we will take literally hundreds of thousands of people to space and that will give us the financial resources to do even bigger things".

In June , Buzz Aldrin , American engineer and former astronaut , and the second person to walk on the Moon , wrote an opinion, published in The New York Times , supporting a human mission to Mars and viewing the Moon "not as a destination but more a point of departure, one that places humankind on a trajectory to homestead Mars and become a two-planet species". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Human mission to Mars or Exploration of Mars. Proposed concepts for the human colonization of Mars. Main article: Effect of spaceflight on the human body. Further information: Health threat from cosmic rays. Main article: Terraforming of Mars. See also: Caves of Mars Project. See also: Planetary protection. Main article: Mars in fiction.

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Autonomic Neuroscience ; 1 Space Safety Magazine. When humans first came many of the Martians were uncomfortable. The astronaut surviving on the planet Matt Damon, also known as Mark Watney. After his crew left him because they thought he was dead during a strong storm, Mark finds himself abandoned and lonely on a desolate planet. NASA puts in non-stop work and fights to bring him back home. In the end, he returns back to Earth safely. In a span of years, I believe that it is possible colonizing planets excluding Earth. With the Moon being colonized first in my opinion, it will come with many challenges. One of the challenges of colonizing Moon …show more content… Visiting Mars is even harder than that, with a whole additional set of problems.

We can probably visit Mars in the next years, but colonization is something on a much larger scale that we really don't have the resources available to do, unless we're willing to make substantial sacrifices, and continue those sacrifices since an off-world colony won't be anywhere near self-sustaining. The Moon will likely be the first bases in our lifetimes, and possibly Mars. Serious colonization of either isn't likely for decades at …show more content… Most of the mistakes made on Earth would not be repeated again on Mars.

Mars should be colonized, as with the Moon. Inhabiting giant asteroids, other planets and moons and space stations in constant orbit around planets and moons would help solve the problem of overcrowding and world hunger. While it'll be extremely risky, expensive and take many years, but colonizing Mars will be a major factor in the long run. They are almost certain that it will happen eventually if all goes well, and I'm at least sure that it is possible.

Space exploration is getting better and cheaper all the time. We still have to develop a lot of technology to be in a position where it is actually possible. Once we are at that stage, it will be relatively easy to go on and colonize the rest of the planets and moons within this solar system. Hopefully one day this will lead us to a point where we can move on to other solar systems and allow our evolutionary chain to expand and continue throughout the Universe. Earth will not be around forever. In the long-term, Mars will enjoy a power-rich economy based upon exploitation of its large domestic resources of deuterium fuel for fusion reactors. Deuterium is five times more common on Mars than it is on Earth, and tens of thousands of times more common on Mars than on the Moon.

But the biggest problem with the Moon, as with all other airless planetary bodies and proposed artificial free-space colonies, is that sunlight is not available in a form useful for growing crops. A single acre of plants on Earth requires four megawatts of sunlight power, a square kilometer needs 1, MW. The entire world put together does not produce enough electrical power to illuminate the farms of the state of Rhode Island, that agricultural giant. Growing crops with electrically generated light is just economically hopeless. But on Mars there is an atmosphere thick enough to protect crops grown on the surface from solar flare.

Therefore, thin-walled inflatable plastic greenhouses protected by unpressurized UV-resistant hard-plastic shield domes can be used to rapidly create cropland on the surface. Even without the problems of solar flares and month-long diurnal cycle, such simple greenhouses would be impractical on the Moon as they would create unbearably high temperatures. On Mars, in contrast, the strong greenhouse effect created by such domes would be precisely what is necessary to produce a temperate climate inside. Such domes up to 50 meters in diameter are light enough to be transported from Earth initially, and later on they can be manufactured on Mars out of indigenous materials. Because all the resources to make plastics exist on Mars, networks of such to meter domes couldbe rapidly manufactured and deployed, opening up large areas of the surface to both shirtsleeve human habitation and agriculture.

Once that has been accomplished, the habitation domes could be virtually any size, as they would not have to sustain a pressure differential between their interior and exterior. In fact, once that has been done, it will be possible to raise specially bred crops outside the domes. The point to be made is that unlike colonists on any known extraterrestrial body, Martian colonists will be able to live on the surface, not in tunnels, and move about freely and grow crops in the light of day.

Mars is a place where humans can live and multiply to large numbers, supporting themselves with products of every description made out of indigenous materials. Mars is thus a place where an actual civilization, not just a mining or scientific outpost, can be developed. And significantly for interplanetary commerce, Mars and Earth are the only two locations in the solar system where humans will be able to grow crops for export. Mars is the best target for colonization in the solar system because it has by far the greatest potential for self-sufficiency. Nevertheless, even with optimistic extrapolation of robotic manufacturing techniques, Mars will not have the division of labor required to make it fully self-sufficient until its population numbers in the millions.

Thus, for decades and perhaps longer, it will be necessary, and forever desirable, for Mars to be able to import specialized manufactured goods from Earth. These goods can be fairly limited in mass, as only small portions by weight of even very high-tech goods are actually complex. Nevertheless, these smaller sophisticated items will have to be paid for, and the high costs of Earth-launch and interplanetary transport will greatly increase their price. What can Mars possibly export back to Earth in return? It is this question that has caused many to incorrectly deem Mars colonization intractable, or at least inferior in prospect to the Moon. For example, much has been made of the fact that the Moon has indigenous supplies of helium-3, an isotope not found on Earth and which could be of considerable value as a fuel for second generation thermonuclear fusion reactors.

Mars has no known helium-3 resources. On the other hand, because of its complex geologic history, Mars may have concentrated mineral ores, with much greater concentrations of precious metal ores readily available than is currently the case on Earth — because the terrestrial ores have been heavily scavenged by humans for the past 5, years. If concentrated supplies of metals of equal or greater value than silver such as germanium, hafnium, lanthanum, cerium, rhenium, samarium, gallium, gadolinium, gold, palladium, iridium, rubidium, platinum, rhodium, europium, and a host of others were available on Mars, they could potentially be transported back to Earth for a substantial profit.

Reusable Mars-surface based single-stage-to-orbit vehicles would haul cargoes to Mars orbit for transportation to Earth via either cheap expendable chemical stages manufactured on Mars or reusable cycling solar or magnetic sail-powered interplanetary spacecraft. The existence of such Martian precious metal ores, however, is still hypothetical. But there is one commercial resource that is known to exist ubiquitously on Mars in large amount — deuterium. Deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen, occurs as out of every million hydrogen atoms on Earth, but comprises out of every million hydrogen atoms on Mars.

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