⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Regarding Henry Analysis
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Regarding Henry (1991) Movie Review Retrospective
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In contrast to the modest queen seated beside the king surrounded by standing nobles, in this text at the equivalent moment, we have an assertive queen standing upright with her monarch, visibly subordinating the kneeling, obedient lords. Distinct theatrical representations of psychological and political tensions distinguish the two versions of the passage. Both texts "work" by leading an audience through an elaborate ceremonial display fraught with symbolic gestures of emotional attachment, sanctification, regal authority, and feudal obedience, but each displays a distinct pattern of language and coded gestures.
Such fine-tuning of dramatic themes and actions are staples of professional theatrical writing. The differences in the texts are of the sort one tends to find in texts that were altered from an original form, and Urkowitz cites Eric Rasmussen, E. Honigmann and Grace Ioppolo as supporting this view. He refers to the case of Richard Brinsley Sheridan 's The School for Scandal , which existed in an earlier form, also by Sheridan, in a two-part play The Slanderers and Sir Peter Teazel , which he argues contain the same type of modifications as is found in the Henry VI plays.
Urkowitz is not alone in finding evidence to support the early draft theory. For example, in The Contention , Margery Jourdayne is referred to as "the cunning witch of Ely ", but in 2 Henry VI she is referred to merely as "the cunning witch. However, R. McKerrow argues against the likelihood of this theory. He asks why a writer would go back to a chronicle source to add a piece of information which is of no importance dramatically, and brings nothing to the scene. McKerrow suggests that the line was cut after performance. More evidence is found in Act 2, Scene 1. In The Contention , after Winchester has accepted Gloucester's challenge to a duel l. I tell thee priest, Plantagenets could never brook the dare.
Again, McKerrow's argument here is not that these lines were added during rehearsals, but that they existed in an early draft of the play and were removed after rehearsals, as they were simply deemed unnecessary; the animosity between the two had already been well established. However, the theory that The Contention may be an early draft does not necessarily imply that it could not also represent a bad quarto. Traditionally, most critics such as Alexander, Doran, McKerrow and Urkowitz have looked at the problem as an either—or situation; The Contention is either a reported text or an early draft, but recently there has been some argument that it may be both. For example, this is the theory supported by Roger Warren in his Oxford Shakespeare edition of the play.
The crux of the argument is that both the evidence for the bad quarto theory and the evidence for the early draft theory are so compelling that neither is able to completely refute the other. As such, if the play contains evidence of being both a reported text and an early draft, it must be both; i. The Contention represents a reported text of an early draft of 2 Henry VI.
Shakespeare wrote an early version of the play, which was staged. Shortly after that staging, some of the actors constructed a bad quarto from it and had it published. In the meantime, Shakespeare had rewritten the play into the form found in the First Folio. Language, throughout the play, helps to establish the theme as well as the tone of each particular episode. For example, the opening speech of the play is an ornate, formal declaration by Suffolk:. The substance of Suffolk's speech is "As I was instructed to marry Margaret on your behalf, I did so, and now I deliver her to you. Language conveys the importance of religion throughout the play.
Henry's language often echoes the Bible. Earlier in the play, he refers to heaven as "the treasury of everlasting joy" 2. On both of these occasions however, Cardinal Winchester, ostensibly a pious man, distorts Henry's genuine piety. The Cardinal mocks religion shortly before the murder of Gloucester. After Gloucester is dead, Winchester continues to blaspheme himself, proclaiming the death of Gloucester to be "God's secret judgement" 3. Shakespeare uses language to distinguish between different types of characters.
The courtly scenes tend to be spoken in blank verse, whereas the commons tend to speak in prose , with fewer metaphors and less decorative language Shakespeare uses this contrast in several plays, such as The Two Gentlemen of Verona , where prose marks the servants out from their masters. When power begins to go to Jack Cade's head, he begins to slip into a more courtly way of speaking. This is most noticeable in his adoption of the ' royal we ', using phrases such as "our jurisdiction regal" 4. The longest speech in the play is Margaret's lament to Henry after they have found Gloucester's dead body.
This lengthy speech is full of classical allusions, elaborate metaphors and verbosity as Margaret moves through a litany of topics in an effort to make her point:. Be woe for me, more wretched than he is. What, dost thou turn away and hide thy face? I am no loathsome leper, look on me. What, art thou like the adder waxen deaf? Be poisonous too and kill thy forlorn queen. Is all thy comfort shut in Gloucester's tomb? Why then Queen Margaret was ne'er thy joy.
Erect his statua and worship it, And make my image but an alehouse sign. Was I for this nigh wracked upon the sea, And twice by awkward winds from England's bank Drove back again unto my native clime? What boded this, but well forewarning winds Did seem to say, 'Seek not a scorpion's nest, Nor set no footing on this unkind shore'? Yet Aeolus would not be a murderer, But left that hateful office unto thee. The pretty vaulting sea refused to drown me, Knowing that thou wouldst have me drowned on shore With tears as salt as sea through thy unkindness. The splitting rocks cow'red in the sinking sands, And would not dash me with their ragged sides, Because thy flinty heart, more hard than they, Might in thy palace perish Margaret. As far as I could ken thy chalky cliffs , When from thy shore the tempest beat us back, I stood upon the hatches in the storm, And when the dusky sky began to rob My earnest-gaping sight of thy land's view, I took a costly jewel from my neck— A heart it was, bound in with diamonds— And threw it towards thy land.
The sea received it, And so I wished thy body might my heart. How often have I tempted Suffolk's tongue— The agent of thy foul inconstancy— To sit and witch me, as Ascanius did, When he to madding Dido would unfold His father 's acts, commenced in burning Troy! Am I not witched like her? Or thou not false like him? Ay me, I can no more. Die Margaret, For Henry weeps that thou dost live so long. There is some debate amongst critics as to the meaning and purpose of this speech, although all tend to agree that the meaning is inherently tied up in the elaborate language.
Some critics such as Stanley Wells argue that the speech, with its wordiness, abstraction, strained allusions, and lengthy metaphors, is poorly written, evidence that Shakespeare was not yet in control of his medium. Proponents of this theory point to The Contention , where only seven lines are retained, with the argument being that the rest of the speech was cut from performance. Knights , by contrast, argues that the speech is deliberately excessive and highly-wrought because Margaret is trying to deflect the already confused and dejected Henry from accusing Suffolk of the murder.
Peter Hall suggested that "the speech is there to establish the emotional, hysterical side of Margaret's nature. I think that is why the language gets so extremely elaborate — it is an attempt by Margaret to contain her turbulent emotions by expressing them in such a strange way. The complete antithesis of this theory has also been suggested as a possibility: that the speech shows not that Margaret is losing control, but that she is completely in control of herself and her emotions. The far ranging metaphors and classical allusions are her way of letting go of her pent up rage and emotion, her disdain for Henry and her inherent passion. In Terry Hands ' production for the Royal Shakespeare Company , Margaret played by Helen Mirren tried to bring Henry back from the brink of madness by engaging his mind in an elaborate, difficult to follow verbal dance.
Henry's preceding speech to Suffolk, where he demands Suffolk not look at him, and then immediately demands that he wants to look into Suffolk's eyes was played by Alan Howard in such a way as to suggest that Henry was losing his grip on reality, and in response to this, Mirren played the speech in such a way as to engage Henry's mind in the here and now, focus his thoughts and prevent them drifting away. A major theme of the play is Henry's inherent weakness and his inability to control the country or even his own court. According to Martin, Henry's weakness as king was the main reason that many nineteenth century critics judged 2 Henry VI to lack emotion: Henry was so inept that audiences could not empathise with him, and hence, his tragedy was diminished.
For example, Henry fails to unite his bickering nobles, and instead allows them to push him around as they decide for themselves how to act and what to do, and at the same time, he allows himself to be utterly dominated by Margaret. He is so subservient that he consents to the imprisonment of a man Gloucester he loves and knows to be innocent, and then attempts to hide from the implications of this decision, trying to leave the court after Gloucester's arrest:.
This leads Henry to a realisation of how he has failed Gloucester, and to lament his own lack of decisiveness and resolution:. This lack of concern is forcibly emphasised when Somerset later tells Henry that all French territories have been lost, and Henry responds nonchalantly, "Cold news, Lord Somerset; but God's will be done" 3. Henry is presented as a good man, but a poor king, to whom Roger Warren refers as "a man of deep religious conviction but no political acumen. As director Peter Hall says, "In theory, Henry should be a good king.
He applies Christian ethics to government. But he is up against men who don't. They justify their behaviour by invoking the great sanctions — God, the King, Parliament, the People — that unscrupulous statesmen, motivated by the naked desire to be on top, have used throughout the ages. Here is the central irony of the play: Henry's Christian goodness produces evil. Another major theme throughout the play is the contrast between Margaret and Henry, something which is introduced when they first meet.
The irony here, much commented on by critics, is that this unity is exactly what does not happen — their thoughts never unite, and their contrasting and incompatible attitudes are seen time and again throughout the play. For example, after the false miracle, Henry is distraught and laments, "O God, seest thou this and bear'st so long? Henry is "fatally married to his polar opposite. The contrast between them is perhaps most forcibly realised when Gloucester dies in Act 3, Scene 2. Again, she is turning events to focus on herself. Henry however, completely ignores her, calling out sorrowfully; "Ah, woe is me for Gloucester, wretched man" This situation is repeated during the Cade rebellion, but this time they ignore one another.
After the rebels deliver their terms to Henry, he tells Buckingham he will speak with Cade, but Margaret is concerned only with herself and Suffolk whose head she is now carrying. Speaking to the head she ignores Henry's problems and exclaims, "Ah barbarous villain! Henry however ignores this, and continues to deal with the rebel demands, saying simply, "Lord Saye, Jack Cade hath sworn to have thy head" 4. This tendency for them to ignore one another is another example of their incompatibility, their failure to unite in thoughts. Religion is a fundamental fact of life to Henry, who is presented as truly pious. Shakespeare may have taken this aspect of Henry's character from Edward Hall's description of him: "He did abhor of his own nature, all the vices, as well of the body as of the soul; and from his very infancy he was of honest conversation and pure integrity; no knower of evil, and a keeper of all goodness; a despiser of all things which were wont to cause the minds of mortal men to slide or appair.
Besides this, patience was so radicate in his heart that of all the injuries to him committed which were no small number he never asked vengeance nor punishment, but for that rendered to Almighty God, his Creator, hearty thanks, thinking that by this trouble and adversity his sins were to him forgotten and forgiven. Henry accepts the authenticity of the event without evidence, trusting in his faith that it is true and that God has performed a miracle. Then, after Winchester's death, Warwick comments "So bad a death argues a monstrous life", to which Henry replies "Forbear to judge, for we are sinners all" 3.
Henry believes that justice, truth and guilt are determined by God, not through human actions. After the fight between Horner and Thump, Henry announces,. For by his death we do perceive his guilt. And God in justice hath revealed to us The truth and innocence of this poor fellow, Which he had thought to have murdered wrongfully. Indeed, so devoted to God is Henry that other characters comment on it. For example, when Margaret is mockingly describing Henry to Suffolk, she says,. But all his mind is bent to holiness, To number Ave-Maries on his beads, His champions are the prophets and apostles , His weapons holy saws of sacred writ, His study is his tilt-yard , and his loves Are brazen images of canonized saints.
I would the college of the cardinals Would choose him Pope, and carry him to Rome, And set the triple crown upon his head; That were a state fit for his holiness. York twice refers to Henry's piousness. First, when outlining his plan to assume power he refers to Henry as a king "Whose church-like humours fits not for a crown" 1. Ideas of justice are paramount throughout the play, especially the notion of where justice comes from and who determines it. This is hinted at when Thump first meets Henry, and Henry asks Gloucester's opinion. Gloucester says,. And let these have a day appointed them For single combat in convenient place, For he hath witness of his servant's malice.
This is the law, and this Duke Humphrey's doom. Of this scene, Michael Hattaway has commented, "the feudal ritual of trial by combat is reduced to the grotesque fights between the drunken armourer and his apprentice [ What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted? Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just; And he but naked, though locked up in steel, Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. However, the perversion of justice is also a dominant theme throughout the play, despite Henry's inability to see it. One of the most famous lines in the play, spoken by the rebel Cade's sidekick Dick the Butcher, is " the first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers ".
His claims prove false, however, as he is arrested on false charges and then assassinated before his trial. Later in the play, Lord Saye makes a similar claim. Like Humphrey, his "innocence" does not save him, and both he and his son-in-law are killed by the rebels. As Hattaway points out "In England under Henry, law bears little relation to divinity and stands divorced from equity. The regal and judicial roles of the king's court are hopelessly confused, so that the status of the institution itself is compromised. The lords' failure to understand the need for an impartial and functioning judiciary is echoed in the rebellion; "The virulent ambition and hostility to law that characterised the barons equally characterise the workmen,"  suggesting there is no difference between the old order and the new.
This is evident in Cade's speech after ordering the execution of Lord Saye; "The proudest peer in the realm shall not wear a head on his shoulders unless he pay me tribute. There shall not a maid be married but she shall pay to me her maidenhead ere they have it. Men shall hold of me in capite. And we charge and command that their wives be as free as heart can wish or tongue can tell" 4.Suffolk's accusation that Gloucester was involved in necromancy with Eleanor is omitted from Act 3, Regarding Henry Analysis 1 ll. It was Regarding Henry Analysis up by Regarding Henry Analysis to get Regarding Henry Analysis Trump. Contemporary References to James I in Regarding Henry Analysis. Bonos Second Challenge Speech Analysis Regarding Henry Analysis free access to an enormous Regarding Henry Analysis of essay examples. Hey Henry, I clean Regarding Henry Analysis The Red Hearts Rhetorical Analysis weekly, in McDonough, of Regarding Henry Analysis trash. Hey Regarding Henry Analysis, what are we going to Regarding Henry Analysis Resurrection Of Body the increased littering in our community? Hey Henry, I Regarding Henry Analysis with the comment last week.