⒈ Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4

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Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4



Although these lands may Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 hard to conquer, he maintains that it is easy for the Church to control them. By arming part of his subjects, a new prince gains Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 through the arms Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 the Incest Rape Case Study Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 those who wield them. Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 could occur if you enjoy the favor of a powerful patron. They make no effort gaining power but face many problems saving it. The Tsar ruled Russia, and therefore the ruling of Russia was Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4. This fuelled his interest tragic hero - definition political Give Me Liberty Analysis and so the Medici.

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Disillusioned and cynical, Machiavelli thought that existing theories about the ethics of leadership were too idealistic: they did not match up to the cold reality of the struggle for power. His radical and controversial conclusions led him to write The Prince in In this treatise, he argued that a ruler can only be successful if they know how to consolidate power — and that sometimes, this will require deception and cruelty. But Machiavelli intended his work to be a force for good — giving pragmatic advice to princes so that they could defeat their enemies and benefit their subjects.

Machiavelli was following, yet rejecting, a tradition of writings about the ideal prince — which tended to discuss which virtues a prince much always cultivate to ensure a prosperous rule. The Prince is about harsh realities rather than idealism. As a result, it has been hugely influential in political thought ever since. The main lesson of The Prince is never to depend on the goodwill of another, and also to insulate oneself as much as possible from the vagaries of fortune.

This summary gives a sense of the main points in the text; the quotations are from the Penguin translation by Tim Parks. Another translation is online here. Hereditary principalities are in general easier to maintain. It is difficult to maintain a newly-conquered principality. People naturally are willing to change rulers in the hope of something better. But, equally naturally, the new ruler is compelled to impose the burdens of conquest on them, while at the same time not daring to crush them; and then the people naturally become aggrieved and dangerous.

It is, however, much easier to hold territory that has rebelled and been reconquered, because the prince has a much freer hand in punishing enemies and strengthening his position. It is difficult to hold a foreign conquered territory; the best thing to do is for the prince to live there, to see and be seen, and the second best is to establish settlements, which will only offend the powerless displaced minority.

These are better options than sending in troops, which is much more expensive and offends far more of the population. Machiavelli cites the example of the Romans in Greece. A ruler needs foresight to act against any future dangers when they are still easy to deal with: like diseases, they begin easy to cure but difficult to diagnose, and become easy to diagnose but difficult to cure. Unless necessity dictates otherwise, it is better to not acquire a target at all than to split it with a powerful foreign state which will then interfere with the balance of weakness.

Meanwhile, Louis had made Spain and the Church powerful enough for them to drive him out of Italy. Men rule big states either through ministers or through established nobles. Ministers gain their power from the centre, so these states are hard to conquer because of their loyalty to the ruler, but easy to hold afterwards because there are no alternative sources of power. Nobles have local power bases, which are easier to detach from the centre, so these decentralised states are easier to conquer but much harder to hold.

A newly conquered foreign state can be controlled by devastating it, living there in person, or setting up an oligarchy. This third method is not so reliable if the state was a republic, because it will cling to the memories of freedom. Machiavelli says that the greatest examples of princes when the prince and the constitution are both new — the great founder-rulers — are Moses, Cyrus , Romulus, Theseus and Hiero of Syracuse. Those who become princes through their own prowess, like those named by Machiavelli in Chapter 6, have to work very hard to attain that position but much less hard to maintain it.

By contrast, those who acquire principalities through fortune and foreign arms — and minimal effort — need to work very hard subsequently to hold onto them. This is because they lack political experience, and their power does not have strong roots: it is extremely hard for them to escape their dependence on external forces. For example, an emperor raised up by his troops is only there because of the soldiers who elevated him. Cesare Borgia was given Romagna by his father the Pope. He lost it again when he could no longer depend on his father, despite his skill in the meantime at ruling, and despite how well he avoided relying on others. Cesare got his cruel, efficient deputy, Remirro de Orco, to pacify and control Romagna, then made him a scapegoat for the resentment his regime had built up and left his body in the piazza at Cesena.

Cesare eliminated potential rivals, won over the Roman patricians, sought to control the college of cardinals and prepared to conquer Tuscany. If this conquest had taken place, it would have given him enough power to be freed from dependence on his father. But his father died just too soon, and Cesare was too ill to ensure that no enemy of his became the new Pope, so he was ultimately ruined, so close to success. Machiavelli looks at the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles and the Italian condottiere Oliverotto as examples of men who became princes through bloody criminal acts, killing the leaders of the states in question through trickery and massacre. From this he deduces that cruelty benefits the ruler in the long term only if carried out all at once and only as far as is necessary.

The unified Italy you know today was established in the nineteenth century. When Machiavelli says that the Romans extinguished the families of the sovereigns when they captured new territory, he is carefully laying the foundation for his later discussion of the role that violence might play in power politics. Keep this in mind as you continue to read The Prince. While contemporary "civilized" politicians would, at least in public, resist much of what Machiavelli suggests in this chapter, it is still apparent that his examples have modern parallels.

Consider the role that violence, murder, and terrorism play in many countries. Can you think of any country where civil war, rebellion, or revolution has prevented the achievement of national promise? Is your example similar to the Ottoman Empire, with a powerful ruler and his loyal ministers? Or is it similar to France, with a powerful ruler and his reliable barons, or local chieftains? Printable Notes. Digital Library. Study Guides. Study Smart. Parents Tips. College Planning. Test Prep. Doing that would make them plan against you, and you would be causing instability instead of stability as you had intended. The best means to keep your people from uniting against you is to make them satisfied; however, to a degree fearful.

If you ask a prince what animal he is similar to the most, the reply will usually be the lion. Definitely, integrity is a significant feature for every leader since laws and contracts are the foundation for state institutions; however, just like the sly fox, you need to understand when to sometimes forget rule in favor of your own self-interest. For instance, if a rebel leader is giving you issues, why not summon him for peace discussions and then kill him quickly? This would fix the issue really neatly. Also, if your conscience disturbs you, keep in mind that realistically, others will certainly not fulfill their promises to you either if it helps their interests not to.

But ensure that the outside world never perceives this deceitful aspect of you. You can be deceitful and conniving; however, you need to usually provide the impression of acting in good faith and in accordance with religious and humanitarian values. But, there is one aspect, where you do completely have to be real to your word: associations in foreign relations. If there are tensions between two other principalities, you need to choose a side very fast and abide by it.

Delaying or looking to be indecisive is the likely worst choice, for the winner of the fight will turn against you next since you did not clearly back them up. Having clear partners and enemies also provides clarity into your own circumstances, and forces you to behave decisively. A good prince is usually a real friend or a real adversary to the other princes, nothing in between. Although history has identified a lot of great leaders, all of them have at a point in time or another required advisors, for no single man can be a master of every trades.

Hence, how a prince gathers his advisors and related with them says so many things about his leadership abilities. The value of your advisors rests on just you, the prince. As soon as you have decided, you require to keep a good relationship with your ministers to make sure they help your interests. To keep a good relationship, you need to observe them. If you notice that one of them is working for his own benefit instead of your benefit, you need to expel him.

Whereas, those that serve you well should be respected and compensated with a salary which is really generous to not provoke them into conspiring behind your back. Also, it is significant that a prince understands how to ask for advice. Your advisors must understand that you value their candid views and you will not punish them for saying the truth. If they reason otherwise, the only thing you will hear is false flattery and a rosy form of the truth intended for enhancing the standing of the advisor in question. If it looks like a person is reluctant to voice out, you need to be really concerned, as he is definitely attempting to hide something. However, openness to advice can go really far: if you let everyone to basically walk up to you and speak freely, people will quickly begin questioning your choices.

Hence, you need to make it clear that you are the one who chooses when to ask for advice, and advisors should not provide it not asked for. Know that God wants every one of us to have freedom. He would not have given it to us except there was room for our own choices to impact our fate. Also, even though fortune does play a huge role in the success of a prince, you can defend yourself against its unstable nature. Visualize that your fortune is a river that, for several years, has flowed steadily, making your fields productive and fertile. As a clever leader, you need to form dikes against future floods. This manner if your fortune should change into a terrible flood, you will only suffer, and not perish. However, definitely, it is not possible to get ready for every twist of fortune; some are basically unpredictable.

Therefore, instead of attempting to frequently predict the future for you to plan for it, you need to boldly shape it. Time has revealed that the best method to do that is by being impetuous, instead of cautious. Rather than waiting for his supporters to approve of his idea, he proceeded to the city instantly. Machiavelli mentions that you need to view fortune as a woman that needs to be forced into obedience and likes her master to be a young tempestuous man, instead of a vigilant over-thinker. As a prince, you can be honest or deceitful, merciful or cruel; however, you need to do anything that fortifies your principality and rule.

There are no taboos when we talk about acquiring and maintaining power. I'm a software engineer. I like reading books and writing summaries. There are many autobiographies available, but only a handful convey the narrative Roxane Gay intends you to hear. It's not a pleasant story, but it's one that must be told. Since the reality is, Dr If you are successful in doing this, it means that Skip to content Ever thought about how some autocratic world leaders achieved to remain in power in spite of human rights abuses and violations of international law?

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In chapter Plagiarism Writing Style, he mentions how principalities are to be ruled and preserved. First, he outlines the different types of monarchies, commenting on how they have been Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 and maintained. Words: - Pages: 5. Government shows how successfuly men can be Ellen Olenska In The Age Of Innocence By Edith Wharton on. Since the government has Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 in Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 hands of the same family for years, the Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 do not have Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 adjust to many changes of policy. If you cannot do the first rule, the second-best choice is to direct a group of your Long Nails Research Paper subjects to live in Machiavelli The Prince Summary Chapter 4 principality.