① King Richard The Second

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King Richard The Second



Although King richard the second sought peace with France, he took a different approach to king richard the second situation king richard the second The New Colossus Analysis. King richard the second Portal. Richard was just 10 years king richard the second when Labetalol Case Summary became king. See also : Principality of Wales. As king richard the second of Richard's programme of asserting his authority, he also tried to cultivate the royal image. It may not have been king richard the second as a stand-alone king richard the second. Before King richard the second is sent to his death, he "un-kings" himself by giving away his crown, sceptre, king richard the second the balm that is king richard the second to anoint king richard the second king king richard the second the zurich airport terminals. King richard the second II exists in a number of variations.

John of Gaunt chastises King Richard - The Hollow Crown: Richard II - BBC Two

Even Bolingbroke's last statement follows Machiavellian philosophy as he alludes to making a voyage to the Holy Land, since Machiavellian philosophy states rulers must appear pious. Richard" at Sir Edward Hoby's house in Canon Row, and it might have been Shakespeare's Richard II , although some suspected that it was a different play, a painting, or a historical document. Another commissioned performance of a different type occurred at the Globe Theatre on 7 Feb. This was the performance paid for by supporters of the Earl of Essex's planned revolt see Historical Context above. It is said that on 30 September , the crew of Capt. The play was performed at the Globe on 12 June The play retained its political charge in the Restoration : a adaptation at Drury Lane by Nahum Tate was suppressed for its perceived political implications.

Tate attempted to mask his version, called The Sicilian Usurper , with a foreign setting; he attempted to blunt his criticism of the Stuart court by highlighting Richard's noble qualities and downplaying his weaknesses. Neither expedient prevented the play from being "silenc'd on the third day," as Tate wrote in his preface. Lewis Theobald staged a successful and less troubled adaptation in at Lincoln's Inn Fields ; Shakespeare's original version was revived at Covent Garden in The play had limited popularity in the early twentieth century, but John Gielgud exploded onto the world's theatrical consciousness, through his performance as Richard at the Old Vic Theatre in , returning to the character in and in what ultimately was considered as the definitive performance of the role.

In England, Paul Scofield , who played it at the Old Vic in , was considered the definitive Richard of more modern times. In , Fiona Shaw played the role as a man. Additionally the role was played by Mark Rylance at the Globe Theatre in An often overlooked production, the lead actor handles the character in, as The Guardian noted, perhaps the most vulnerable way ever seen. No film version for cinema release has ever been made; however, the film Train of Events includes a sub-plot featuring an amateur dramatics society performing the last scenes of Richard II. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Forker page note ISBN Retrieved 12 December Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, , Spring March Soul of the Age. London: Penguin. Richard II and the realities of Power.

Cambridge: Cambridge. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, , 24— Richard II: Critical Essays. New York: Garland Publishing Inc, , 95— Forker Bloomsbury, , 1—, pp. Forker Bloomsbury, , 1—, p. Shakespeare Quarterly. ISSN JSTOR S2CID The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September Ian McKellen Stage. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 26 April The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 7 March — via IMDb. Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on 7 September BBC Media Centre. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 15 June BBC News.

Archived from the original on 24 January Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 19 July By Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In , he took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In , after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke , who had previously been exiled.

Henry invaded England in June with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, he deposed Richard and had himself crowned king. Richard is thought to have been starved to death in captivity, although questions remain regarding his final fate. Richard's posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare , whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and his deposition as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses.

Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as many historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, he may have had a personality disorder , particularly manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that his policies were not unrealistic or even entirely unprecedented, but that the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, leading to his downfall.

Edward, eldest son of Edward III and heir apparent to the throne of England, had distinguished himself as a military commander in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War , particularly in the Battle of Poitiers in After further military adventures, however, he contracted dysentery in Spain in He never fully recovered and had to return to England the next year. Richard was born at the Archbishop's Palace of Bordeaux , in the English principality of Aquitaine , on 6 January According to contemporary sources, three kings, "the King of Castile , the King of Navarre and the King of Portugal ", were present at his birth.

On 21 June the next year, Richard's grandfather King Edward III, who was for some years frail and decrepit, died after a year reign. This resulted in the year-old Richard succeeding to the throne. He was crowned on 16 July at Westminster Abbey. In a matter of three years, these councillors earned the mistrust of the Commons to the point that the councils were discontinued in Whereas the poll tax of was the spark of the Peasants' Revolt , the root of the conflict lay in tensions between peasants and landowners precipitated by the economic and demographic consequences of the Black Death and subsequent outbreaks of the plague. John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace was burnt down. The Archbishop of Canterbury , Simon Sudbury , who was also Lord Chancellor , and Lord High Treasurer Robert Hales were both killed by the rebels, [10] who were demanding the complete abolition of serfdom.

It is unclear how much Richard, who was still only fourteen years old, was involved in these deliberations, although historians have suggested that he was among the proponents of negotiations. The king's men grew restive, an altercation broke out, and William Walworth , the Lord Mayor of London , pulled Tyler down from his horse and killed him. The king soon revoked the charters of freedom and pardon that he had granted, and as disturbances continued in other parts of the country, he personally went into Essex to suppress the rebellion. On 28 June at Billericay , he defeated the last rebels in a small skirmish and effectively ended the Peasants' Revolt. It is likely, though, that the events impressed upon him the dangers of disobedience and threats to royal authority, and helped shape the absolutist attitudes to kingship that would later prove fatal to his reign.

It is only with the Peasants' Revolt that Richard starts to emerge clearly in the annals. Despite great sums of money awarded to the Empire, the political alliance never resulted in any military victories. Anne died from plague in , greatly mourned by her husband. Michael de la Pole had been instrumental in the marriage negotiations; [2] he had the king's confidence and gradually became more involved at court and in government as Richard came of age. This displeasure was exacerbated by the earl's elevation to the new title of Duke of Ireland in Tensions came to a head over the approach to the war in France.

While the court party preferred negotiations, Gaunt and Buckingham urged a large-scale campaign to protect English possessions. In , the king himself led a punitive expedition to the north , [28] but the effort came to nothing, and the army had to return without ever engaging the Scots in battle. The threat of a French invasion did not subside, but instead grew stronger into Richard was deeply perturbed by this affront to his royal prerogative, and from February to November went on a "gyration" tour of the country to muster support for his cause. On his return to London, the king was confronted by Gloucester, Arundel and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick , who brought an appeal [d] of treason against de la Pole, de Vere, Tresilian, and two other loyalists: the mayor of London, Nicholas Brembre , and Alexander Neville , the Archbishop of York.

On 20 December they intercepted de Vere at Radcot Bridge , where he and his forces were routed and he was obliged to flee the country. Richard now had no choice but to comply with the appellants' demands; Brembre and Tresilian were condemned and executed, while de Vere and de la Pole — who had by now also left the country [41] — were sentenced to death in absentia at the Merciless Parliament in February Richard gradually re-established royal authority in the months after the deliberations of the Merciless Parliament.

The aggressive foreign policy of the Lords Appellant failed when their efforts to build a wide, anti-French coalition came to nothing, and the north of England fell victim to a Scottish incursion. He outlined a foreign policy that reversed the actions of the appellants by seeking peace and reconciliation with France, and promised to lessen the burden of taxation on the people significantly. With national stability secured, Richard began negotiating a permanent peace with France. A proposal put forward in would have greatly expanded the territory of Aquitaine possessed by the English Crown. However, the plan failed because it included a requirement that the English king pay homage to the King of France — a condition that proved unacceptable to the English public.

There were some misgivings about the betrothal, in particular because the princess was then only six years old, and thus would not be able to produce an heir to the throne of England for many years. Although Richard sought peace with France, he took a different approach to the situation in Ireland. The English lordships in Ireland were in danger of being overrun by the Gaelic Irish kingdoms, and the Anglo-Irish lords were pleading for the king to intervene. His army of more than 8, men was the largest force brought to the island during the late Middle Ages. The period that historians refer to as the "tyranny" of Richard II began towards the end of the s. The timing of these arrests and Richard's motivation are not entirely clear. Although one chronicle suggested that a plot was being planned against the king, there is no evidence that this was the case.

After a heated quarrel with the king, he was condemned and executed. As the time for the trial drew near, Nottingham brought news that Gloucester was dead. It is thought likely that the king had ordered him to be killed to avoid the disgrace of executing a prince of the blood. Arundel's brother Thomas Arundel , the Archbishop of Canterbury, was exiled for life. While recruiting retainers for himself in various counties, he prosecuted local men who had been loyal to the appellants.

The fines levied on these men brought great revenues to the crown, although contemporary chroniclers raised questions about the legality of the proceedings. These actions were made possible primarily through the collusion of John of Gaunt, but with the support of a large group of other magnates, many of whom were rewarded with new titles, who were disparagingly referred to as Richard's "duketti". A threat to Richard's authority still existed, however, in the form of the House of Lancaster , represented by John of Gaunt and his son Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford. The House of Lancaster not only possessed greater wealth than any other family in England, they were of royal descent and, as such, likely candidates to succeed the childless Richard.

According to Bolingbroke, Mowbray had claimed that the two, as former Lords Appellant, were next in line for royal retribution. Mowbray vehemently denied these charges, as such a claim would have amounted to treason. Rather than allowing Bolingbroke to succeed, Richard extended the term of his exile to life and expropriated his properties. In Richard summoned the Parliament of Shrewsbury , which declared all the acts of the Merciless Parliament to be null and void, and announced that no restraint could legally be put on the king. It delegated all parliamentary power to a committee of twelve lords and six commoners chosen from the king's friends, making Richard an absolute ruler unbound by the necessity of gathering a Parliament again.

In the last years of Richard's reign, and particularly in the months after the suppression of the appellants in , the king enjoyed a virtual monopoly on power in the country, a relatively uncommon situation in medieval England. A new form of address developed; where the king previously had been addressed simply as " highness ", now "royal majesty ", or "high majesty" were often used. It was said that on solemn festivals Richard would sit on his throne in the royal hall for hours without speaking, and anyone on whom his eyes fell had to bow his knees to the king. Richard's approach to kingship was rooted in his strong belief in the royal prerogative , the inspiration of which can be found in his early youth, when his authority was challenged first by the Peasants' Revolts and then by the Lords Appellant.

Edward's court had been a martial one, based on the interdependence between the king and his most trusted noblemen as military captains. To avoid dependence on the nobility for military recruitment, he pursued a policy of peace towards France. As part of Richard's programme of asserting his authority, he also tried to cultivate the royal image. Unlike any other English king before him, he had himself portrayed in panel paintings of elevated majesty, [78] of which two survive: an over life-size Westminster Abbey portrait c.

Among Richard's grandest projects in the field of architecture was Westminster Hall , which was extensively rebuilt during his reign, [82] perhaps spurred on by the completion in of John of Gaunt's magnificent hall at Kenilworth Castle. Bushy and Green, I will not vex your souls-- Since presently your souls must part your bodies-- With too much urging your pernicious lives, For 'twere no charity; yet, to wash your blood From off my hands, here in the view of men I will unfold some causes of your deaths.

You have misled a prince, a royal king, A happy gentleman in blood and lineaments, By you unhappied and disfigured clean: You have in manner with your sinful hours Made a divorce betwixt his queen and him, Broke the possession of a royal bed And stain'd the beauty of a fair queen's cheeks With tears drawn from her eyes by your foul wrongs. Myself, a prince by fortune of my birth, Near to the king in blood, and near in love Till you did make him misinterpret me, Have stoop'd my neck under your injuries, And sigh'd my English breath in foreign clouds, Eating the bitter bread of banishment; Whilst you have fed upon my signories, Dispark'd my parks and fell'd my forest woods, From my own windows torn my household coat, Razed out my imprese, leaving me no sign, Save men's opinions and my living blood, To show the world I am a gentleman.

This and much more, much more than twice all this, Condemns you to the death. See them deliver'd over To execution and the hand of death. Lords, farewell. Drums; flourish and colours. How brooks your grace the air, After your late tossing on the breaking seas? Dear earth, I do salute thee with my hand, Though rebels wound thee with their horses' hoofs: As a long-parted mother with her child Plays fondly with her tears and smiles in meeting, So, weeping, smiling, greet I thee, my earth, And do thee favours with my royal hands. Feed not thy sovereign's foe, my gentle earth, Nor with thy sweets comfort his ravenous sense; But let thy spiders, that suck up thy venom, And heavy-gaited toads lie in their way, Doing annoyance to the treacherous feet Which with usurping steps do trample thee: Yield stinging nettles to mine enemies; And when they from thy bosom pluck a flower, Guard it, I pray thee, with a lurking adder Whose double tongue may with a mortal touch Throw death upon thy sovereign's enemies.

Mock not my senseless conjuration, lords: This earth shall have a feeling and these stones Prove armed soldiers, ere her native king Shall falter under foul rebellion's arms. The means that heaven yields must be embraced, And not neglected; else, if heaven would, And we will not, heaven's offer we refuse, The proffer'd means of succor and redress. So when this thief, this traitor, Bolingbroke, Who all this while hath revell'd in the night Whilst we were wandering with the antipodes, Shall see us rising in our throne, the east, His treasons will sit blushing in his face, Not able to endure the sight of day, But self-affrighted tremble at his sin.

Not all the water in the rough rude sea Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; The breath of worldly men cannot depose The deputy elected by the Lord: For every man that Bolingbroke hath press'd To lift shrewd steel against our golden crown, God for his Richard hath in heavenly pay A glorious angel: then, if angels fight, Weak men must fall, for heaven still guards the right. Lest you mistake the heavens are o'er our heads.

Parle without, and answer within. Then a flourish. Lady Madam, we'll play at bowls. Lady Madam, we'll dance. QUEEN My legs can keep no measure in delight, When my poor heart no measure keeps in grief: Therefore, no dancing, girl; some other sport. Lady Madam, we'll tell tales. Lady Of either, madam. QUEEN Of neither, girl: For of joy, being altogether wanting, It doth remember me the more of sorrow; Or if of grief, being altogether had, It adds more sorrow to my want of joy: For what I have I need not to repeat; And what I want it boots not to complain. Lady Madam, I'll sing. Lady I could weep, madam, would it do you good. Enter a Gardener, and two Servants. Westminster Hall. Now, Bagot, freely speak thy mind; What thou dost know of noble Gloucester's death, Who wrought it with the king, and who perform'd The bloody office of his timeless end.

In that dead time when Gloucester's death was plotted, I heard you say, 'Is not my arm of length, That reacheth from the restful English court As far as Calais, to mine uncle's head? Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars, On equal terms to give him chastisement? Either I must, or have mine honour soil'd With the attainder of his slanderous lips.

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