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Examples Of Nixons Objectives



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Finally, representatives should be aware that grounds of appeal presented in formulaic terms, particularly when they reappear with frequency in a multiplicity of cases over time, are likely to be received with circumspection. There can be no substitute for properly tailored and carefully crafted grounds of appeal which clearly reflect the unique facts, features and issues pertaining to the individual case.

Ditto makeweights and embellishments. The application for permission to appeal in the present case did not satisfy the requirements and standards rehearsed above. It employed the vague language of "erred", without more. This was inadequate and unacceptable. In principle, an error of law may take a number of forms. Inexhaustively, these include a failure to have regard to material evidence; taking into account and being influenced by immaterial evidence; inadequate reasons; unfair procedure; misunderstanding or misconstruction of the law; disregarding a relevant statutory provision; failing to give effect to a binding decision of a superior court; and irrationality.

One of the negative consequences of poorly compiled applications for permission to appeal is the inappropriate expenditure of judicial time in attempting to understand the basis and thrust of the application. This occurred in the present case, both in advance of the substantive hearing and at the hearing itself. Given the pressures on Tribunals to process large volumes of cases efficiently and expeditiously, in circumstances where there has been a notable recent increase in applications for permission to appeal to UTIAC, this is unacceptable.

Furthermore, it is inimical to the overriding objective enshrined in rule 2 1 of the Rules. This provides, inter alia, that the Upper Tribunal must be enabled to process cases in a manner which avoids delay. Poorly compiled applications for permission to appeal can have other undesirable consequences. These include undermining the important value of legal certainty and unfairness to the other party. Henceforth, applicants can expect unsatisfactory applications for permission to appeal to be dealt with brusquely and robustly. The nebulous terms of the application for permission to appeal in the present case are reflected in the grant of permission.

The former had a contagious effect on the latter. The Judge granted permission, firstly, on the ground that the FtT had arguably erred in law in its assessment of the credibility of three particular witnesses: see the second ground of appeal reproduced in [2] above. It may be observed that it will very rarely be appropriate to grant permission to appeal on this kind of ground. Credibility assessments by first instance fact finding Tribunals will normally be challengeable only on the basis of irrationality or, as it is sometimes inelegantly termed, perversity : Edwards - v - Bairstow [] AC Judges should be very slow to grant permission on such a ground.

The second striking feature of the grant of permission is the statement: "It is arguable that the Judge gave inadequate reasons for finding that the Appellant lived with his wife in a subsisting relationship. Thus there was a mismatch between application and grant. It seems likely that the permission Judge was struggling to comprehend the application and was driven to this formulation in consequence.

Finally, as regards the first ground of appeal, also quoted in [2] above, it is abundantly clear from the determination that the Judge had considered the emails from the local authority but, on perfectly rational and clearly explained grounds, declined to accord them any weight. I announced my decision, with reasons, at the conclusion of the hearing. In brief summary, Mr Smart, representing the Secretary of State, accepted, realistically and correctly, that this is an irrationality challenge.

The proportions of the hurdle thereby erected require no elaboration. I am satisfied that the findings and conclusions of the Judge were comfortably open to her, having regard to the documentary evidence which I have considered and the oral evidence of those who testified summarised in the determination. It was plainly open to the Judge to make the omnibus finding that the Appellant and his spouse were living together in a genuine and subsisting relationship.

There is no demonstrable error on the face of the determination. Furthermore, sufficient findings are rehearsed, while others can be readily inferred. No piece of material evidence was overlooked by the Judge. Fundamentally, the weight which the Judge determined to accord to certain aspects of the evidence, while attaching correspondingly little or no weight to others, lay comfortably within the bounds of the standard of rationality. In my view, permission to appeal should not have been granted to the Secretary of State in this case. The application for permission fell measurably short of the governing threshold and invited a swift and summary refusal.

In Bicol and Camarines Catanduanes islands 86, people with fifteen missionaries. Based on the tribute counts, the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines was , people, [] of which: 20, were Chinese migrant traders, [] 15, were Latino soldier-colonists sent from Peru and Mexico, [] 3, were Japanese residents, [] and were pure Spaniards from Europe, [] there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinos , the rest were Malays and Negritos.

They were under the care of missionaries, of which 79 were Augustinians, nine Dominicans and 42 Franciscans. The fragmented and sparsely populated [] nature of the islands made it easy for Spanish colonialization. The Spanish then brought political unification to most of the Philippine archipelago via the conquest of the various small maritime states although they were unable to fully incorporate parts of the sultanates of Mindanao and the areas where the ethnic groups and highland plutocracy of the animist Ifugao of Northern Luzon were established.

The Spanish introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law , western printing and the Gregorian calendar alongside new food resources such as maize, pineapple and chocolate from Latin America. Education played a major role in the socio-economic transformation of the archipelago. The oldest universities, colleges , and vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were all created during the Spanish colonial period, and by the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia. They also founded the Colegio de San Ildefonso on August 1, After the expulsion of the Society of Jesus in , the management of the Jesuit schools passed to other parties.

All institutions offered courses included not only religious topics but also science subjects such as physics, chemistry, natural history and mathematics. Outside the tertiary institutions, the efforts of missionaries were in no way limited to religious instruction but also geared towards promoting social and economic advancement of the islands. They cultivated into the natives their taste for music and taught Spanish language to children. The only commercial plant introduced by a government agency was the plant of tobacco. Church and state were inseparably linked in Spanish policy, with the state assuming responsibility for religious establishments.

The work of conversion was facilitated by the disunity and insignificance of other organized religions, except for Islam, which was still predominant in the southwest. The eventual outcome was a new Roman Catholic majority, from which the Muslims of western Mindanao and the upland tribal and animistic peoples of Luzon remained detached and alienated from Ethnic groups such as the Ifugaos of the Cordillera region and the Mangyans of Mindoro. At the lower levels of administration, the Spanish built on traditional village organization by co-opting local leaders. This perpetuated an oligarchic system of local control. Around William Adams , an English navigator contacted the interim governor of the Philippines, Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco on behalf of Tokugawa Ieyasu , who wished to establish direct trade contacts with New Spain.

Friendly letters were exchanged, officially starting relations between Japan and New Spain. From to , the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico, via the Royal Audiencia of Manila, and administered directly from Spain from after the Mexican revolution , [] until The Manila galleons , were constructed in Bicol and Cavite. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external challenges, especially from the British, Dutch, and Portuguese and Chinese pirates. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, universities, and hospitals. In a Spanish decree introduced education, establishing public schooling in Spanish.

Although the Spanish forces consisted of just two Manila galleons and a galley with crews composed mainly of Filipino volunteers, against three separate Dutch squadrons, totaling eighteen ships, the Dutch squadrons were severely defeated in all fronts by the Spanish-Filipino forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their plans for an invasion of the Philippines. A total of Manila galleons set sail in the years of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade to There was no direct trade with Spain until The Philippines was never profitable as a colony during Spanish rule, and the long war against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century together with the intermittent conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese Wokou piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.

The repeated wars, lack of wages and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent from Latin America either died or fled to the countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives or escaped enslaved Indians From India [] where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution, further blurring the racial caste system Spain tried hard to maintain. The Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain in which he advises to abandon the colony, but the religious orders opposed this since they considered the Philippines a launching pad for the conversion of the Far East.

The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown and often procured from taxes and profits accrued by the Viceroyalty of New Spain Mexico , and the year-old fortifications at Manila had not been improved much since first built by the Spanish. Anda y Salazar established his headquarters first in Bulacan, then in Bacolor. The Spanish then persecuted the Binondo Chinese community for its role in aiding the British. In direct communication was established with Spain and trade with Europe through a national ship based on Spain.

In , colonial officers from Bulacan, Tondo, Laguna Bay, and other areas surrounding Manila reported with consternation that discharged soldiers and deserters From Mexico, Spain and Peru during the British occupation were providing the indios military training for the weapons that had been disseminated all over the territory during the war. The Philippines was included in the vast territory of the Kingdom of Spain, in the first constitution of Spain promulgated in Cadiz in It was never a colony as modern-day historical literature would say, but an overseas region in Asia Spanish Constitution The Spanish Constitution of provides for the first autonomous community for "Archipelago Filipino" where all provinces in the Philippine Islands will be given the semi-independent home rule program.

During the 19th century Spain invested heavily in education and infrastructure. Through the Education Decree of December 20, , Queen Isabella II of Spain decreed the establishment of a free public school system that used Spanish as the language of instruction, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. A great number of infrastructure projects were undertaken during the 19th century that put the Philippine economy and standard of living ahead of most of its Asian neighbors and even many European countries at that time. Among them were a railway system for Luzon, a tramcar network for Manila, and Asia's first steel suspension bridge Puente Claveria, later called Puente Colgante. Spanish Manila was seen in the 19th century as a model of colonial governance that effectively put the interests of the original inhabitants of the islands before those of the colonial power.

As John Crawfurd put it in its History of the Indian Archipelago, in all of Asia the "Philippines alone did improve in civilization, wealth, and populousness under the colonial rule" of a foreign power. Credit is certainly due to Spain for having bettered the condition of a people who, though comparatively highly civilized, yet being continually distracted by petty wars, had sunk into a disordered and uncultivated state. The inhabitants of these beautiful Islands upon the whole, may well be considered to have lived as comfortably during the last hundred years, protected from all external enemies and governed by mild laws vis-a-vis those from any other tropical country under native or European sway, owing in some measure, to the frequently discussed peculiar Spanish circumstances which protect the interests of the natives.

Until an inept bureaucracy was substituted for the old paternal rule, and the revenue quadrupled by increased taxation, the Filipinos were as happy a community as could be found in any colony. The population greatly multiplied; they lived in competence, if not in affluence; cultivation was extended, and the exports steadily increased. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in The colony's population as of December 31, , was recorded at 5,, persons. Aguilar Jr. His second ship, the Santa Rosa, which was captained by the American Peter Corney, had a multi-ethnic crew which included Filipinos. Upon Mexican independence, the Filipinos has had such an effect on Mexico that there were plans among the newly independent Mexicans, to help the Filipinos revolt against Spain too, there was even a secret memorandum from the Mexican government which read:.

Now that we Mexicans have fortunately obtained our independence by revolution against Spanish rule, it is our solemn duty to help the less fortunate countries especially the Philippines, with whom our country has had the most intimate relations during the last two centuries and a half. We should send secret agents with a message to their inhabitants to rise in revolution against Spain and that we shall give them financial and military assistance to win their freedom.

Should the Philippines succeed in gaining her independence from Spain, we must felicitate her warmly and from an alliance of amity and commerce with her as a sister nation. Moreover, we must resume the intimate Mexico-Philippine relations, as they were during the halcyon days of the Acapulco-Manila galleon trade. Likewise, in this period, overseas Filipinos were also active in the Asia-Pacific especially in China and Indochina.

During the Taiping rebellion, Frederick Townsend Ward had a militia employing foreigners to quell the rebellion for the Qing government, at first he hired American and European adventurers but they proved unruly, while recruiting for better troops, he met his aide-de-camp, Vincente Vicente? During this Taiping rebellion, by July , Townsend Ward's force of Manilamen ranging from one to two hundred mercenaries successfully assaulted Sung-Chiang Prefecture.

The Criollo and Latino dissatisfaction against the Peninsulares Spaniards direct from Spain spurred by their love of the land and their suffering people had a justified hatred against the exploitative Peninsulares who were only appointed to high positions due to their race and unflinching loyalty to the homeland. This resulted in the uprising of Andres Novales a Philippine born soldier who earned great fame in richer Spain but chose to return to serve in poorer Philippines. He was supported by local soldiers as well as former officers in the Spanish army of the Philippines who were primarily from the now sovereign Mexico [] as well as the freshly independent nations of Colombia , Venezuela , Peru , Chile , Argentina and Costa Rica.

He eventually became Prime Minister of the Spanish Empire and was awarded membership in the Order of the Golden Fleece , which is considered the most exclusive and prestigious order of chivalry in the world. In the s to s, in the urban areas of the Philippines, especially at Manila, according to burial statistics, as much as 3. Eventually, everybody belonging to these non-native categories diminished because they were assimilated into and chose to self-identify as pure Filipinos [] since during the Philippine Revolution, the term "Filipino" included anybody born in the Philippines coming from any race.

The Philippine Revolution began in Rizal was wrongly implicated in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in Leadership conflicts between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo culminated in the execution or assassination of the former by the latter's soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a truce with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong. Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the agreement. One, General Francisco Macabulos , established a Central Executive Committeee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines.

This event precipitated the Spanish—American War. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, , via transport provided by Dewey. Aguinaldo proclaimed a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines on June By the time U. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action deeply resented by the Filipinos. On January 23, , the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed under Asia's first democratic constitution, with Aguinaldo as its president. The Filipino representative, Felipe Agoncillo , had been excluded from sessions as Aguinaldo's government was not recognized by the family of nations. President McKinley justified the annexation of the Philippines by saying that it was "a gift from the gods" and that since "they were unfit for self-government, The First Philippine Republic resisted the U.

Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain. Emilio Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence. Hostilities broke out on February 4, , after two American privates killed three Filipino soldiers as American forces launched a major attack in San Juan , a Manila suburb.

The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered significantly. At least , Filipino civilians lost their lives as an indirect result of the war mostly as a result of the cholera epidemic at the war's end that took between , and , lives. The poorly equipped Filipino troops were easily overpowered by American troops in open combat, but they were formidable opponents in guerrilla warfare. Aguinaldo and his government escaped, however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On June 5, , Antonio Luna , Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, was killed by Aguinaldo's guards in an apparent assassination while visiting Cabanatuan , Nueva Ecija to meet with Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, , and was brought to Manila.

Convinced of the futility of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war. In , President McKinley sent the Taft Commission , to the Philippines, with a mandate to legislate laws and re-engineer the political system. A Philippine Constabulary was organized to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the responsibilities of the United States Army. Brigadier General James F. Smith arrived at Bacolod on March 4, , as the Military Governor of the Sub-district of Negros, after receiving an invitation from Aniceto Lacson , president of the breakaway Cantonal Republic of Negros.

The Philippine Organic Act was the basic law for the Insular Government , so called because civil administration was under the authority of the U. Bureau of Insular Affairs. This government saw its mission as one of tutelage, preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Governor-General of the Philippines. Philippines was a major target for the progressive reformers. A report to Secretary of War Taft provided a summary of what the American civil administration had achieved.

It included, in addition to the rapid building of a public school system based on English teaching, and boasted about such modernizing achievements as:. In the American reformers in the Philippines passed two major land acts designed to turn landless peasants into owners of their farms. By the law was clearly a failure. Reformers such as Taft believed landownership would turn unruly agrarians into loyal subjects. The social structure in rural Philippines was highly traditional and highly unequal. Drastic changes in land ownership posed a major challenge to local elites, who would not accept it, nor would their peasant clients. Elite Filipina women played a major role in the reform movement, especially on health issues.

They specialized on such urgent needs as infant care and maternal and child health, the distribution of pure milk and teaching new mothers about children's health. When Democrat Woodrow Wilson became U. In U. The Jones Law of became the new basic law, promised eventual independence. It provide for the election of both houses of the legislature. In socio-economic terms, the Philippines made solid progress in this period. The practices of slavery , piracy and headhunting were suppressed but not entirely extinguished.

A new educational system was established with English as the medium of instruction, eventually becoming a lingua franca of the Islands. Members to the elected legislature lobbied for immediate and complete independence from the United States. Several independence missions were sent to Washington, D. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by Filipinos, who had effectively gained control by Philippine politics during the American territorial era was dominated by the Nacionalista Party , which was founded in Although the party's platform called for "immediate independence", their policy toward the Americans was highly accommodating. Quezon , who served continuously as Senate president from until This took the form of an offer to supply a division of troops, as well as providing funding for the construction of two warships.

A locally recruited national guard was created and significant numbers of Filipinos volunteered for service in the US Navy and army. Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city. High Commissioner of the Philippines — The change in form was more than symbolic: it was intended as a manifestation of the transition to independence. The Great Depression in the early thirties hastened the progress of the Philippines towards independence. In the United States it was mainly the sugar industry and labor unions that had a stake in loosening the U. Therefore, they agitated in favor of granting independence to the Philippines so that its cheap products and labor could be shut out of the United States.

Quezon , partially because of provisions leaving the United States in control of naval bases. Under his influence, the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. The act provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with transition to full independence after a ten-year period. The commonwealth would have its own constitution and be self-governing, though foreign policy would be the responsibility of the United States, and certain legislation required approval of the United States president. A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, On February 8, , the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of to 1.

The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, , and ratified by popular vote on May 14, On September 17, , [] presidential elections were held. Manuel L. The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, , in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around , people. The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence. However, uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia , in the level of U. A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II.

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga on the morning of December 8, , just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay. On January 2, , General MacArthur declared the capital city, Manila, an open city to prevent its destruction. Most of the 80, prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp kilometers to the north. About 10, Filipinos and 1, Americans died before reaching their destination. The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission.

They initially organized a Council of State , through which they directed civil affairs until October , when Japan declared the Philippines as an independent republic at Gozen Kaigi since U. Laurel proved to be unpopular. From mid through mid, Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. Army Forces Far East , [] [] continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops. The Philippines was the bloodiest theater of the war for the invading empire, with at least , Japanese troops killed in fighting the combined Filipino resistance and American soldiers, a larger number of casualties compared to the second-placed theater, the entirety of China, which caused the Japanese about , casualties.

At the eve of the liberation of the Philippines, the Allied forces and the Japanese Empire waged the largest naval battle in history, by gross tonnage in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Landings in other parts of the country had followed, and the Allies, with the Philippine Commonwealth troops, pushed toward Manila. However, fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, Approximately 10, U.

The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction, especially during the Battle of Manila. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large portion during the final months of the war, and Manila had been extensively damaged. As in most occupied countries, crime, looting, corruption, and black markets were endemic. Japan in proposed independence on new terms, and some collaborators went along with the plan, but Japan was clearly losing the war and nothing became of it. With a view of building up the economic base of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere , the Japanese Army envisioned using the islands as a source of agricultural products needed by its industry. For example, Japan had a surplus of sugar from Taiwan but, a severe shortage of cotton, so they tried to grow cotton on sugar lands with disastrous results.

They lacked the seeds, pesticides , and technical skills to grow cotton. Jobless farm workers flocked to the cities, where there was minimal relief and few jobs. The Japanese Army also tried using cane sugar for fuel, castor beans and copra for oil, derris for quinine , cotton for uniforms, and abaca hemp for rope. The plans were very difficult to implement in the face of limited skills, collapsed international markets, bad weather, and transportation shortages. The program was a failure that gave very little help to Japanese industry, and diverted resources needed for food production. Living conditions were bad throughout the Philippines during the war.

Transportation between the islands was difficult because of lack of fuel. Food was in very short supply, due to inflation. The return of the Americans in spring was welcomed by nearly all the Filipinos, in sharp contrast to the situation in nearby Dutch East Indies. Laurel , was highly unpopular, and the extreme destructiveness of the Japanese Army in Manila in its last days solidified Japan's image as a permanent target of hate. MacArthur testified to Roxas' patriotism and the collaborationist issue disappeared after Roxas was elected in on a platform calling for closer ties with the United States; adherence to the new United Nations; national reconstruction; relief for the masses; social justice for the working class; the maintenance of peace and order; the preservation of individual rights and liberties of the citizenry; and honesty and efficiency of government.

Washington also demanded that Americans would have equal rights with Filipinos in business activities, a special treatment that was resented. In the United States secured an agreement that it would keep its major military and naval bases. On the whole the transition to independence, achieved in , was mostly peaceful and highly successful, despite the extreme difficulties caused by massive war damages. Elections were held in April , with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.

The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, , as scheduled. A military assistance pact was signed in granting the United States a year lease on designated military bases in the country. By an international treaty concluded in between the United States in respect of its then overseas territory, the Philippine Archipelago and the United Kingdom in respect of its then protectorate, the State of North Borneo the two powers agreed the international boundaries between those respective territories. However, by a supplemental international treaty concluded at the same time, the two powers agreed that those islands, although part of the Philippines Archipelago, would remain under the administration of the State of North Borneo 's British North Borneo Company.

On the 4th of July, , the Republic of the Philippines was born. It became the successor to the U. Pursuant to a supplemental international agreement, the transfer of administration became effective on October 16, Roxas did not stay long in office because of a heart attack as he was speaking at Clark Air Base on April 15, He was succeeded by his vice president Elpidio Quirino. The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April , and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino , was elevated to the presidency.

Laurel and winning a four-year term. World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas known as "Huks" , who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression.

Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May Enhancing President Manuel Roxas ' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people.

Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits. As President, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force PAF : President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight.

He restored the people's trust in the military and in the government. Magsaysay's administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free in modern Philippine history; his rule is often cited as the Philippines's "Golden Years". Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the country gained international recognition in sports, culture, and foreign affairs.

The Philippines placed second on a ranking of Asia's clean and well-governed countries. Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities.

Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced. Garcia and Emmanuel Pelaez as a vice president. President Macapagal changed the independence day of the Philippines from July 4 to June Macapagal ran for re-election in , but was defeated by his former party -mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos , who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated public works projects and intensified tax collection.

An explosion which killed opposition lawmakers during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, , led Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Protests surged and the writ was restored on January 11, Amid the growing popularity of the opposition, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, , by virtue of Proclamation No. Marcos justified the declaration by citing the threat of Communist insurgency and the alleged ambush of defense secretary Juan Ponce Enrile.

A constitutional convention , which had been called for in to replace the colonial Constitution , continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early , changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society", which he would rule for more than two decades. However, the economy suffered after incurring massive debt and downgrading prospects of the Philippines under martial rule, while the wife of the president, Imelda Marcos , lived in high society.

The human rights abuses [] [15] under the dictatorship particularly targeted political opponents, student activists, [] journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought back against the administration. Based on the documentation of Amnesty International , Task Force Detainees of the Philippines , and similar human rights monitoring entities, [] the dictatorship was marked by 3, known extrajudicial killings, [] 35, documented tortures, 77 'disappeared', and 70, incarcerations.

Some 2, of the 3, murder victims were tortured and mutilated before their bodies were dumped in various places for the public to discover - a tactic meant to sow fear among the public, [] [] which came to be known as "salvaging. Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose own health faced obstacles due to lupus.

The political opposition boycotted the presidential elections , which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos , in protest over his control over the results. In , opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections Comelec , declared Marcos the winner of the election.

However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel , an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by local and international observers. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution , forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, The administration of Marcos has been called by various sources as a kleptocracy [] [] [] and a conjugal dictatorship. Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional " Freedom Constitution ". The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao , and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress.

Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military. Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left dead and , homeless. During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts , the most serious occurring in December In , the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a year extension of the U.

In the elections , Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos , endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years. He legalized the Communist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. In June , Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents.

In October , the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front MNLF , a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao , was signed in , ending the year-old struggle. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.

On his presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the rape-slay case of UPLB students Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in Joseph Estrada , a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector. He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor.

Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the constitution. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. However it was not successful in amending the constitution. In October , however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses.

In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory. Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion. She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, In , a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained.

Halfway through her second term, Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted to push for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government, which critics describe would be a move that would allow her to stay in power as Prime Minister. Her term saw the completion of infrastructure projects like Line 2 in Numerous other scandals such as the Maguindanao massacre , wherein 58 people were killed, and the unsuccessful NBN-ZTE broadband deal took place in the dawn of her administration. She formally ended her term as president in wherein she was succeeded by Senator Benigno Aquino III and ran for a seat in congress the same year becoming the second president after Jose P.

Laurel to run for lower office following the presidency. He is a bachelor and the son of former Philippines president Corazon C. His administration claimed to be focused on major reforms that would bring greater transparency, reduced poverty, reduced corruption, and a booming market which will give birth to a newly industrialized nation. Just as with his predecessor, however, Aquino's administration has been marked with a mix of success and scandal since his inauguration, beginning with the Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila and Hong Kong for a time affecting major events such as Wikimania The Sultanate of Panay , the newset of 21 in the country, was formally established covering 10 Muslims in the island.

Tensions regarding Sabah due to the Sultanate of Sulu 's claim gradually rose during the early years of his administration. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education. The country was then hit by Typhoon Yolanda Haiyan on November 8, , which heavily devastated the Visayas. From January 15 to 19, , Pope Francis stayed in the Philippines for a series of publicity tours and paid visits to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan.

Under his presidency, the Philippines has had controversial clashes with the People's Republic of China on a number of issues such as the standoff in Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea and the dispute over the Spratly islands. This resulted in the proceedings of the Philippines to file a sovereignty case against China in a global arbitration tribunal.

Later on in , the Aquino Administration then filed a case to the Arbitration Tribunal in The Hague which challenged Beijing's claim in the South China Sea after Chinese ships were accused of harassing a small Philippine vessel carrying goods for stationed military personnel in the South Thomas Shoal where an old Philippine ship had been stationed for many years. On March 23, , Diwata-1 was launched to the International Space Station ISS , becoming the country's first micro-satellite and the first satellite to be built and designed by Filipinos. On the other hand, Camarines Sur 3rd District representative Leni Robredo won with the second narrowest margin in history, against Senator Bongbong Marcos.

Under his presidency, the government launched a hour complaint office accessible to the public through a nationwide hotline, , and changed the nationwide emergency telephone number from to On November 8, , the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled in favor of the burial of the late president Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng Mga Bayani , the country's official cemetery for heroes, provoking protests from various groups. The burial was done on November 18, , in private. Later in the afternoon, the event was made public. In a bid for attaining inclusive economic growth and the improvement quality of life in the country, Duterte launched DuterteNomics , with infrastructure development and industrialization being a significant part of its policy.

Infrastructure Plan , which aims to usher in "a golden age of infrastructure" in the country, began in It includes the development of transport infrastructure such as railways, roads, airports, and seaports, as well as other infrastructure such as irrigation and flood control projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects. In , Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act , which provides for free tuition and exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions.

He also signed 20 new laws, including the Universal Health Care Act, the creation of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development , establishing a national cancer control program, and allowing subscribers to keep their mobile numbers for life. Under his presidency, the Bangsamoro Organic Law was legislated into law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. September Part of a series on the.

Prehistory pre— Prehispanic period — Spanish period — American period Post-independence Under Marcos Communist rebellion Moro conflict People Power Revolution. Contemporary —present. Main article: Timeline of Philippine history. Main article: Prehistory of the Philippines. See also: Kalanay Cave. Main article: History of the Philippines — Kedatuan of Madja-as.

Rajahnate of Butuan. Sultanate of Sulu. Kedatuan of Dapitan. Sultanate of Maguindanao. Rajahnate of Cebu. Sultanate of Lanao. Chiefdom of Taytay. Main article: Tondo historical polity. Main article: Cainta historical polity. Main article: Namayan. Main article: Caboloan. Main article: Ma-i. Main article: Kedatuan of Madja-as. Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating an ancient kadatuan or tumao noble class Visayan couple. A royal couple of the Visayans. Main article: Rajahnate of Cebu. Main article: Rajahnate of Butuan.

Main article: Sultanate of Sulu. Main article: Sultanate of Maguindanao. Main article: Confederation of sultanates in Lanao. Main article: Bruneian Empire. Main article: Lucoes. Main article: Kedatuan of Dapitan. Main article: Spanish—Moro conflict. The native costumes Barong Tagalog and the earlier variants of Baro't saya of the females, were developed during the Spanish era. Main article: British occupation of Manila. Main article: Philippine Revolution. Main article: Philippine—American War. Main article: Insular Government of the Philippine Islands. Main article: Commonwealth of the Philippines. Main article: Agricultural Land Reform Code. See also: Land reform in the Philippines. Main articles: Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos and Human rights abuses of the Marcos dictatorship.

Main article: History of the Philippines —present. Further information: —90 Philippine coup attempts. Main article: Presidency of Rodrigo Duterte. Philippines portal. May 1, Bibcode : Natur. PMID S2CID Journal of Human Evolution. April Comptes Rendus Palevol. Billings; N. Goudswaard eds. Piakandatu ami Dr. Howard P. The Negrito groups are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Comparative Austronesian Series. ANU Press. ISBN Retrieved October 9, Landa Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage.

International Journal of Historical Archaeology. JSTOR An Examination of a Historical Puzzle". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. Archived from the original on October 21, Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture. Abhinav Publications. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Global Vision. State and society in the Philippines. OCLC William Morrow. Journal of Magellan's Voyage in French. National Quincentennial Committee. March 14, Basques In The Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press. GMA News Online. Retrieved January 18, University of Alabama Press. Human Biology. Archived from the original PDF on March 23, Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such.

Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26 : 72— Archived from the original on July 7, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo PMC Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on February 28, November The American Journal of Human Genetics.

In Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter eds. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay peninsula. Psychology Press. Ancient jades map 3, years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia. Casino, George R. Ellis, Wilhelm G.

Pathos of Origin. Notes from central Taiwan: Our brother to the south. Taiwan Times. Birthplace of Austronesians is Taiwan, capital was Taitung: Scholar. Taiwan News. Hung, H. Semantic Scholar. War and peace in precolonial Philippines. The Manila Times. University of Hawaii Press. Asian Perspectives. Sundaland: Tracing The Cradle of Civilizations. Indonesia Hydro Media. August 7, Wiley, Mark ed. A Question of Origins. Tuttle Publishing. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. Retrieved February 15, Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines.

The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density. National Museum of the Philippines. February 10, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. March 27, Archived from the original on January 26, Retrieved January 2, Salazar at Mendoza-Urban. State Department.

Mangyan Heritage Center. Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved January 7, Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. In Our Image. Retrieved August 24, Oxford Business Group. Vikings of the Far East. New York: Vantage Press, NAID Field Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Series. Angeles: Holy Angel University Press. Relation of the Conquest of the Island of Luzon. The Philippine Islands, Ohio, Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Pasay city government website. City Government of Pasay. Archived from the original on September 21, Retrieved February 5, Excavations at Santa Ana.

China Studies Program. De la Salle University. Archived from the original PDF on July 24, Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original PDF on September 23, Retrieved September 25, The history of Agoo : — La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved October 27, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. Chau Ju-Kua, writing in the thirteenth century, probably was the first to mention that certain ferocious raiders of China's Fukien coast probably came by way of the southern portion of the island of Formosa, He referred to them as the Pi-sho-ye. Already conceived while he was in Binanua-an, and as the titular head of all the datus left behind by Datu Puti, Datu Sumakwel thought of some kind of system as to how he could exercise his powers given him by Datu Puti over all the other datus under his authority.

Wonderful Indonesia. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved July 22, De la Salle University, History Department. Volume Xavier University Press. Page A Philippine Leaf".

Nixon's Democratic opponent in the general election Examples Of Nixons Objectives Vice Examples Of Nixons Objectives Hubert Humphreywho Examples Of Nixons Objectives nominated at a convention Examples Of Nixons Objectives by violent protests. Examples Of Nixons Objectivesthe Republican Party's presidential nominee in the electionExamples Of Nixons Objectives serving for eight years as Examples Of Nixons Objectives vice president. AP Examples Of Nixons Objectives. Retrieved August 12, An oxymoron, however, is Examples Of Nixons Objectives combination and juxtaposition How To Colonize Mars two words that contradict each other, but Examples Of Nixons Objectives as a sound or logical figure of speech.