✎✎✎ Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay

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Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay



Funding: none. In addition, a healthy diet including calcium can help your bones strong. Why would Nt1310 Unit 3 Assignment 1 Language Analysis want to Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay an unhealthy lifestyle with potential cancer? Social Forces and Aging, 7th ed. These are thought to be caused by Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay and degradation of lens proteins, and are Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay a Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay of the normal ageing of the lens.

Aging Eye 1: Vision

It can be determined by the pinch test, which is the amount the eyelids can be pinched away from the globe and the relative delay and the absence of snap in the lids ability to regain its normal anatomical position. Progressive laxity can result in punctual eversion and later eversion of the eyelid margin from the globe ectropion and subsequent symptoms of a watery eye. If the pretarsal orbicularis muscle is comparatively strong, the eyelid may undergo inversion entropion instead causing eyelashes to rub against the cornea and subsequent discomfort.

Oculoplastic surgeons operate symptomatic ectropion or entropion. These conditions may also be operated upon before a cataract operation to avoid infection. In entropion, temporary relief may be achieved by simply taping the lid to pull it outwards. In the upper lids, the disinsertion or attenuation of the levator muscle may cause involutional ptosis. Excess upper eyelid skin along with anterior migration of the preaponeurotic fat pads results in dermatochalasis or pseudoptosis. These are operated upon if they are interfering visually. Watery eye in the elderly, although mainly caused by eyelid malposition, can sometimes result from true lacrimal obstruction. If the nasolacrimal duct obstruction 3 causes distressful watering or recurrent infections it can be treated by dacryocystorhinostomy.

The other end of the spectrum is reduction in the amount of tears produced by the lacrimal gland causing dry eyes. This is treated with artificial tears or punctual plugs to retain tears in the conjunctival sac. In with the rule astigmatism, the vertical meridian of the cornea is steeper than the horizontal meridian and the eye has more refractive power plus cylinder along the vertical axis, hence the patient has difficulty resolving targets with horizontal lines, for example, letters like E or F. In against the rule astigmatism, the horizontal meridian is steeper than the vertical and the eye has more refractive power plus cylinder along the horizontal axis, hence the patient has difficulty focusing vertically oriented targets.

Hence, because of presbyopic changes and astigmatism changes regular refraction check ups are advised for the elderly to help them see optimally. Other corneal changes include decrease in corneal luster and corneal sensitivity and increase in corneal fragility. Arcus senilis is the most prominent and frequent ageing change seen in the cornea. If these descemet membrane excrescences occur axially in the corneal endothelium they are called cornea guttata.

Kruckenberg spindle is the deposition of uveal pigment on the corneal endothelium with ageing. All the above mentioned changes by themselves do not interfere in vision. The corneal endothelium cannot regenerate and hence the endothelial cell density reduces with increasing age. The remaining endothelial cells enlarge to cover the loss of some of the endothelial cells with ageing resulting in pleomorphism. As the endothelial cells maintain the corneal deturgecence, a further decrease in endothelial cell count beyond a certain amount either because of surgical damage or progressive guttata in Fuchs endothelial degeneration, can result in corneal thickening and subsequent opacity and decrease in quality of vision.

If visual acuity is reduced penetrating keratoplasty is considered. Gonioscopy shows increased pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork. There is also increase in the resistance to the outflow of aqueous humor. Significant resistance beyond caused by ageing may precipitate glaucoma. Pupil tends to become smaller and the iris less reactive with age and more difficult to dilate pharmacologically. Pigment loss in the iris may cause iris transillumination on slit lamp examination especially at the pupillary margin. The shape and tone of ciliary body changes with age and this along with changes in the decrease elasticity of the lens capsule and compactness of the lens fibres causes a decrease in the amplitude of accommodation resulting in presbyopia.

Reduction in near vision caused by presbyopia can usually be overcome by holding the objects further away or by near correction glasses bifocals, reading glasses. To the ophthalmic surgeon, one of the most familiar signs of ageing is the hardening nuclear sclerosis of the lens caused by various biochemical and photochemical changes. Patients experience symptoms of hardening presbyopia many years before frank cataract formation. Presbyopia, as discussed earlier is attributable to change in capsular elasticity and lens hardening because of modifications in cortical fibre cell cytoplasm and nuclear protein solubility.

Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation is done in patients whose standard of living and performance of daily routine activities is affected by cataract. Like any other tissue in the body, the vitreous undergoes the irreversible process of ageing characterised by changes in the collagen fibrils and hyaluronic acid components causing harmless floaters noticed by the elderly. Clinically with ageing there is condensation of the vitreous gel, enhancement of fibrillary structure of vitreous, increased mobility of fibrillary structures, and formation of optically empty spaces called lacunae.

Occasionally if there is strong vitreoretinal adhesion in the peripheral retina, there may occur a retinal tear during acute PVD, which needs to be lasered to prevent retinal detachment. Hence patients with sudden onset flashes caused by traction on retina during acute PVD and floaters caused either by the vitreous debris or pigment dispersion from the torn retina need to be referred to the ophthalmologist to rule out retinal tears associated with PVD. Our vision deteriorates with age and virtually every measure of visual function shows declining performance with increasing age including decrease visual acuity, decline in sensitivity of visual field, decreased contrast sensitivity, and increased dark adaptation threshold. Decreased visual function is a combination of mainly ageing changes in neuronal elements of visual system, changes in ocular media, and pupillary miosis.

The box lists the neurosensory retinal changes. Retinal pigment epithelium RPE , which is vital for integrity of the rods and cones, shows with age increased pleomorphism, decrease in number of cells in the posterior pole, decreased melanin content, increased lipofuscin content, and decreased volume of cytoplasm. Photoreceptors show displaced nuclei and convoluted rod outer segments. Grunwald et al 6 have shown that in normal subjects, retinal macular microcirculation reduces with age. Grunwald et al 7 also then showed a systematic decrease in choroidal circulatory parameters with an increase in the severity of AMD age related macular degeneration features associated with risk for the development of SRNVM subretinal neovascular membrane , suggesting a role for ischaemia in its development.

Bruch's membrane shows some of the most prominent changes in ageing as debris from the overlying retina begins to accumulate. It is hypothesised that apoptosis or bulk shedding of cytoplasmic material by the RPE retinal pigment epithelium into the Bruch's membrane may afford a way of disposal of old and damaged membranes or organelles. Subsequent removal of this debris occurs, but accumulation occurs when production overwhelms removal with ageing. Basal laminar deposits accumulate mainly in the macular areas, which eventually manifest as drusen. Drusen looks like specks of yellowish white material under the retina. Drusen can be either hard drusen, which are small solid round deposits with distinct margins or soft drusen, which are larger, pale yellow, and have indistinct borders.

Drusen by themselves do not usually cause visual disturbances and cannot be treated, but can progressively worsen and is linked to AMD in some elderly patients. Hard drusen can progress to dry AMD atrophic causing gradual distortion of vision and progressive central visual deterioration. There is no treatment, laser or other that can halt or reverse the progression of dry AMD related visual loss. They are associated with pigmentary maculopathy and in severe cases geographical atrophy. Hard drusen can also sometimes combine together to transform into soft drusen. This SRNVM can leak causing central distortion and bleed causing a sudden drop in central visual acuity and exudative maculopathy.

Some evidence suggests soft drusen are instrumental in the spread of abnormal vessels, but whether they stimulate vessel growth or simply provide space for them by lifting up the RPE remains unclear. AMD is the largest cause of blind registration in UK and with the demographic right shift of the population is gaining more importance. Strong risk factors of AMD are ageing, smoking, family history, and genetic factors. Advice on diet especially green leafy vegetables and fruits, giving up smoking, certain multivitamins AREDS study 9 , and self monitoring with amsler chart has been recommended in patients with high risk of progression to AMD. Recent advances in treatment include photodynamic therapy PDT , macugen therapy, and intravitreal triamcinolone injections, some of which are still in trial stages, to treat wet kind of AMD that fit certain treatment criteria.

In the optic nerve, swollen axons at the level of lamina cribrosa have been noted. There is an age related decrease in the number of optic nerve axons and increase in thickness of the connective tissue of the optic nerve and increased elastic fibres. Clinically fundal changes visualised with ageing include loss of fundus reflexes, gradual fading of fundus colour, greater visibility of larger choroidal vessels senile tigroid fundus , peripapillary atrophy, and peripheral retinal degenerations.

Vision is affected in various ways with ageing. Presbyopia is a striking feature. If an individual does experience these symptoms, there are treatments available. Hormone therapy works by increasing estrogen levels to help balance out hormones. Also, a healthy lifestyle can help prevent these symptoms from occurring V. Males experience different hormonal changes with age. As they get older, they gradually produce less testosterone. Also, changes occur to the prostate gland that causes it to enlarge.

This could cause urinary problems due to the proximity of the bladder to the prostate gland. There is also a decrease in sperm production as males get older, but fertility continues throughout their lifespan. However, reproductive abilities may decrease due to erectile dysfunction. As men get older, a substance called cyclic IGMP that is released in the brain during sexual arousal decreases. This decrease causes erectile problems, however, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can decrease the risk of these problems. There are also a few medications that can help cure erectile dysfunction V. Hill, personal communication, It is obvious that there are many negative changes that occur as people get older.

Luckily, there are actions that people can take in order to slow the aging process down a little bit. To make sure that an individual receives the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, it is important to see a doctor regularly to make sure that they are staying healthy. Another important thing to consider is the fact that close relationships have a positive effect on health. Avoiding risky behavior that could cause injury is important when trying to slow down the aging process.

People who exercise regularly, even if it is for 30 minutes every other day, will notice a decline in the aging process. Exercising helps maintain good health. It also helps maintain muscle tone and strength. Older people are at risk for falling and it is important that they take the actions needed to decrease their risk V. In addition, cognitive activities will help maintain brain functioning and will also help slow down memory degeneration. This includes thing eke solving riddles, doing logic problems, Kudos, crossword puzzles, and other similar activities.

This essay was written by a fellow student. You may use it as a guide or sample for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly. Changes Associated with Aging. Accessed October 10, In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready to help you write a unique paper. Just talk to our smart assistant Amy and she'll connect you with the best match. Academic anxiety? Get original paper in 3 hours and nail the task. Get your paper price experts online. Different Changes — My Interview. A Deeper Look Inside Activism. Need a custom essay sample written specially to meet your requirements? Choose skilled expert on your subject and get original paper with free plagiarism report Order custom paper Without paying upfront.

Opportunity Cost Associated with Merger of Airlines. What are the problems associated with child prostitution? Problems Associated With Marijuana Abuse. Weakness Associated with Gm. Get help with your paper. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Show More. Related Documents Cataract A cataract can form or develop when the protein of the eyes is accumulated.

Read More. Words: - Pages: 2. What Are Cataracts? Cataract Sx Cataract Sx is extremely delicate surgery and is performed under general anesthesia with high-magnification using an operating microscope involves making a small incision is made in the eye and a hole is made in the capsular bag that holds the lens. Words: - Pages: 1. Ready To Get Started? Create Flashcards. Discover Create Flashcards Mobile apps. Follow Facebook Twitter.

Dry age related Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay degeneration. Biomedical Engineering Application Essay Sample evidence suggests soft drusen are instrumental in the spread of abnormal vessels, but whether Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay stimulate vessel growth or Resurrection Of Body provide space for them Shepardsons Accomplishments lifting up the RPE remains Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay. Also, a healthy lifestyle can help prevent these symptoms from occurring V. Excess upper eyelid skin along with anterior migration Eye Changes Associated With Aging Essay the preaponeurotic fat pads results in dermatochalasis or pseudoptosis.