✍️✍️✍️ Homelessness Research Assignment

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Homelessness Research Assignment



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So you think you understand homelessness - Marisa A. Zapata - TEDxSalem

HRAC addresses the challenges of homelessness through research that uncovers conditions that lead to and perpetuate homelessness. Our goal is to help reduce homelessness and its negative impacts on individuals, families and communities, with an emphasis on communities of color. Get the latest on approaches to homelessness and COVID in the center's weekly updates from experts and news sources around the world. Find help during the COVID outbreak including food, supplies, public hygiene stations, guidelines, and more. Lisa K. Even with an extension of the current moratorium, Oregon will likely only delay the evictions without additional supports.

The Portland State University Library and our center created a special topic page on Homelessness for researchers and the general public. Find everything from data and statistics to stories from those with lived experiences. Sign up to receive our quarterly newsletter with research updates, fundraising and partnership opportunities, and information on best practices. Your gift will support community partnerships, student researchers, faculty projects, and our overall work to address homelessness.

Insights from homelessness researchers across the country online Reports and Videos about. Changing Narratives Elevating the conversation on homelessness through research and storytelling See our stories about Changing Narratives. Innovative Solutions Exploring ideas from building temporary villages to creating hygiene centers More on Villages about Innovative Solutions. Research with impact. Homelessness research. Weekly National Updates. Find Help. New Research. How to Help. Library Resources.

Find help. Read the full report. In general, the strategies under Goal 2 to empower our state and community partners to improve their response to individuals and families experiencing homelessness are related to this second phase of the Homeless Policy Academies. Finally, disasters are considered as an issue relevant to homelessness, given the devastation caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and the consequences to those who lost their homes and those who already were homeless before the catastrophe. The strategic action plan developed in has served as the framework for developing and implementing activities across the Department related to chronic homelessness.

Representatives of fifty-four states and U. The recommendations of the states and territories were captured in the final report of the meeting and were considered carefully when developing the revised goals and strategies of the Plan. The matrix provides the means by which the agencies and staff divisions within the Department track progress towards achieving the goals outlined in the Plan. By reviewing the activities matrix, the Department can identify where opportunities to move forward exist. There are two key areas in which the Department can track its progress since 1 the programs that serve persons experiencing homelessness and 2 the range of research and programmatic activities that have been undertaken since HHS operates a range of programs that may serve individuals and families experiencing homelessness.

The relevant programs are divided into two categories: targeted homeless assistance programs, which are specifically designed to serve individuals and families who are homeless, and mainstream programs, which are designed to meet broader goals, such as alleviating poverty or providing health care to low-income persons. Often times, individuals or families who are homeless are eligible for, or can access, services provided through mainstream programs.

The combined total budget of the targeted homeless assistance programs is less than one percent of the combined total budget of the mainstream programs that individuals or families who are homeless may access see Table 2. Additionally, utilization of the mainstream programs not only represents a significant funding stream, but also greatly expands the capacity of the Department to provide the necessary services to persons experiencing homelessness.

However, barriers to accessing mainstream programs often hinder the engagement of some persons experiencing homelessness such as a lack of a permanent, fixed address , and a lack of knowledge about engaging persons experiencing homelessness commonly exists within the broader mainstream service provider community. In order to improve the accessibility and take advantage of the funding and capacity available within the mainstream programs, the Department has engaged in a range of strategies to increase access to mainstream resources for persons experiencing homelessness. Table 2. Table 3. Between and , the Department made significant progress towards the goals identified in the Plan. Reviewing key research and programmatic activities accomplished under each of the three original goals of the strategic action plan provide an opportunity to measure the progress of the Department in a quantitative manner and provide context for the revisions that are ultimately laid forth in the Strategic Action Plan.

The objective of goal one was to expand the capacity of HHS programs to assist persons experiencing chronic homelessness. Many HHS programs lack the funding to serve individuals with multiple, complex needs. If the funding is available, effective service delivery interventions may not be applied when working with this population. The activities developed to meet this goal centered on strengthening outreach and engagement activities, improving the eligibility review process, exploring way to maintain program eligibility, and improving the transition of clients from targeted homeless programs to mainstream service providers.

HHS is the largest grant-making agency in the federal government and the nation's largest health insurer. HHS administers more grant dollars than all other federal agencies combined and handles more than one billion insurance claims per year. These activities are administered by eleven Operating Divisions across the Department. The Operating Divisions work closely with state, local, and tribal governments, as many HHS-funded services are provided at the local level by state, county or tribal agencies, or through private sector and faith-based grantees. Much of the funding awarded by HHS is distributed in the form of block grants to states, allowing states to prioritize and direct the funding towards the needs they have prioritized, which may be different than their neighboring states.

As such, it is critical that HHS works with states and community partners to empower them and provide the appropriate tools by which to improve their response to people experiencing chronic homelessness. Prevention activities are critical to any plan that seeks to end chronic homelessness. However, in order to prevent homelessness, we first need to understand effective prevention interventions. As such, HHS has sponsored research over the past several years to better understand what prevention models might be effective. Bassuk, Ellen L. American Journal of Public Health. Burt, M. Urban Institute Washington, D. Farrow, J. Health and health needs of homeless and runaway youth.

A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health. Koegel, Paul, Elan Melamid, and M. Audrey Burnam. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults. American Journal for Public Health. Kuhn R, Culhane DP. Applying cluster analysis to test a typology of homelessness by pattern of shelter utilization: results from the analysis of administrative data. AmericanJournal of Community Psychology. Metraux, Stephen, Dennis P.

Stephen Cleghorn. Public Health Reports. Child Welfare. Ringwalt, C. The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States. AmericanJournal of Public Health. Robertson, M. A Homeless Youth: Research, Intervention, and Policy. Washington DC. Shinn, Marybeth, Weitzman, Beth C. American Journal of Public Health ; ; 88 11 : United States Conference of Mayors. Webb, David A. Prevalence of episodic homelessness among adult childbearing women in Philadelphia, PA. HHS identifies 18 targeted and non-targeted programs as relevant to serving eligible homeless persons. Mainstream programs are designed to serve those who meet a set of eligibility criteria that is often established by the states, but generally address provision of services to low-income populations.

These programs are located in five of the organizational components of HHS and their role in serving persons experiencing homelessness are detailed in this Appendix. The Grants for the Benefit of Homeless Individuals GBHI program enables communities to expand and strengthen their treatment services for homeless individuals with substance abuse disorders, mental illness, or with co-occurring substance abuse disorders and mental illness. Eligible applicants are community-based public and private nonprofit entities. Since the inception of the Treatment for Homeless program, over 10, persons have received grant-supported services. Programs and activities include: 1 substance abuse treatment; 2 mental health services; 3 immediate entry to treatment; 4 wrap-around services; 5 outreach services; 6 screening and diagnostic treatment services; 7 staff training; 8 case management services; 9 supportive and supervisory services in outpatient and residential settings; and 10 referrals for primary health services, job training, educational services, and relevant housing services.

Eligible grant recipients include private nonprofit and public entities. Eligible recipients of services include persons who are literally homeless, as well as those who are living in transitional housing arrangements. Services provided include primary health care, substance abuse, mental health, and oral health services; extensive outreach and engagement; extensive case management services; and assistance with accessing public benefits, housing, job training, etc. Health centers serve all residents in their catchment area, regardless of ability to pay.

Health Centers serve homeless individuals as appropriate, therefore, Centers located in communities that do not have HCH programs may serve persons who are homeless. Approximately , persons are served annually by HCH program grantees. PATH is a formula grant program operated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA to provide financial assistance to states to support services for homeless individuals who have serious mental illness or serious mental illness and substance abuse. Territories have no matching requirements. Not more than 20 percent of the payment may be expended for housing services. Eligible programs and activities include: 1 outreach services; 2 screening and diagnostic treatment services; 3 habilitation and rehabilitation services; 4 community mental health services; 5 alcohol or drug treatment services; 6 staff training; 7 case management services; 8 supportive and supervisory services in residential settings; 9 referrals for primary health services, job training, educational services, and relevant housing services; and 10 a prescribed set of housing services.

According to the latest available data, state-funded community based agencies used FY allocations to provide PATH eligible services to 86, enrolled persons. Persons served were among the most severely disabled. The Administration for Children and Families ACF funds public, community and faith-based programs through three grant programs that serve the runaway and homeless youth population. Eligible applicants for the Basic Center and Transitional Living Programs are states, units of local government, a combination of units of local government, and public or private nonprofit agencies, organizations or institutions.

Federally recognized Indian Tribes, Indian Tribes that are not federally recognized and urban Indian organizations are also eligible. Eligible applicants for the Street Outreach Program include any private, nonprofit agency, non-federally recognized Indian Tribes and urban Indian organizations. The purpose of the Basic Center Program is to establish or strengthen locally-controlled, community and faith-based programs that address the immediate needs of runaway and homeless youth and their families. Basic Centers provide youth with temporary emergency shelter, food, clothing, and referrals for health care. Other types of assistance provided to youth and their families may include individual, group, and family counseling; recreation programs; and aftercare services for youth once they leave the shelter.

Grants can also be used for outreach activities targeting youth who may need assistance. Basic Centers seek to reunite young people with their families when possible, or to locate appropriate alternative placements. The purpose of the Transitional Living Program is to provide shelter, skills training, and support services to youth, ages 16 through 21, who are homeless, for a continuous period, generally not exceeding 18 months. Youth who have not reached the age of 18 years during an 18 month stay may remain in the program for an additional days or until their 18 th birthday, whichever comes first.

Youth are provided with stable, safe living accommodations and services that help them develop the skills necessary to move to independence. The purpose of the Street Outreach Program is to provide educational and prevention services to runaway, homeless and street youth who have been subject to, or are at risk of, sexual exploitation or abuse. The program works to establish and build relationships between street youth and program outreach staff in order to help youth leave the streets. Support services that will assist the youth in moving and adjusting to a safe and appropriate alternative living arrangement include:treatment, counseling, information and referral services, individual assessment, crisis intervention, and follow up support.

Street outreach programs must have access to local emergency shelter space that is an appropriate placement for young people and that can be made available for youth willing to come in off the streets. Title V Surplus Property Program. Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act Title V ,authorizes the Secretary of Health and Human Services to make suitable federal properties categorized as excess or surplus available to representatives of persons experiencing homelessness as a permissible use in the protection of public health. The purpose of the program is to provide federal surplus land and buildings to organizations which serve the needs of the homeless.

Eligible applicants are states and their political subdivisions and instrumentalities, and tax-supported and nonprofit institutions, which provide a broad array of services to the homeless. Eligible activities include emergency and transitional housing and related services; substance abuse and mental health programs for homeless individuals; homeless ex-offender aftercare programs and miscellaneous other supportive homeless services.

A policy change that took effect in September of expands the allowable uses of surplus real property to include permanent supportive housing. Access to Recovery ATR , operated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA and established in , supports a grantee-run voucher program for substance abuse clinical treatment and recovery support services built on the following three principles: consumer choice, outcome oriented, and increased capacity. ATR is a competitive grant program, and selected ATR Grantees have designed their approach and targeted efforts to areas of greatest need, areas with a high degree of readiness, and to specific populations, including adolescents.

Critically, grantees are using the new funds to supplement, not supplant current funding and are building on existing programs. The goal of the program is to expand clinical treatment and recovery support services to reach those in need. Child Support Enforcement Program. The mission of the child support enforcement program is to assure that assistance in obtaining support both financial and medical is available to children through locating parents, establishing paternity and support obligations, and enforcing those obligations. Native American Tribes, too, can operate culturally appropriate child support programs with Federal funding.

Services are available to a parent with custody of a child whose other parent is living outside the home, and services are available automatically for families receiving assistance under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF program. The child support program in each state can be a helpful resource to families consisting of single custodial parents with children, since a reason for the homelessness may be non-payment of child support.

In addition, child support programs can help homeless noncustodial parents, through outreach, address any outstanding child support issues perhaps helping them with the order modification process and connecting them with organizations that can help them with basic skills, such as how to seek and maintain employment, and understand issues surrounding court and child support agency processes. The formula for determining the federal allocations of funds to the states is determined by Congress. The funds are intended to improve access to community-based health care delivery systems for adults with serious mental illnesses and children with serious emotional disturbances.

States design a services delivery plan that addresses the unique needs of the state's populations. CMHSBG funds are used to carry out the plan, evaluate programs and services carried out under the plan, and for planning, administration and educational activities that relate to providing services under the plan. Block grant funds are used by each state as they determine their needs; therefore, the program does not require states to report on expenditures related to homelessness. The purpose of the Community Services Block Grant CSBG operated by the Administration for Children and Families ACF is to provide services and activities to reduce poverty, including services to address employment, education, better use of available income, housing assistance, nutrition, energy, emergency services, health, and substance abuse needs.

As a flexible block grant awarded to states and U. Territories, CSBG does not collect specific data on amounts expended on homelessness. Health Centers provide health care services as described in statute and regulation. They provide basic preventive and primary health care services. Health Centers also provide services that help ensure access to the primary care such as case management, outreach, transportation and interpretive services. All grantees must demonstrate that all persons will have access to the full range of required primary, preventive, enabling, and supplemental health services, including oral health care, mental health care and substance abuse services, either directly on-site or through established arrangements.

Health Center reporting does not support an estimate of expenditures on homelessness outside of the HCH program. The purpose of the Family Violence Prevention and Services program, operated by the Administration for Children and Families, is to fund grants to state agencies, territories and Indian Tribes for the provision of shelter to victims of family violence and their dependents, and for related services, such as emergency transportation and child care. Grantees use additional resources to expand current service programs and to establish additional services in rural and underserved areas, on Native American reservations, and in Alaskan Native Villages. The program also supports technical assistance and training for local domestic violence programs and disseminates research and information through five resource centers.

Head Start and Early Head Start are comprehensive child development programs operated by the Administration for Children and Families ACF that serve children from birth to age five, pregnant women, and their families. It is a child-focused program with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Head Start serves homeless families eligible for the program in areas such as nutrition, developmental, medical and dental screenings, immunizations, mental health and social services referrals, and transportation.

Section of the Head Start Act establishes income eligibility for participation in Head Start programs by reference to the official poverty line, adjusted annually in accordance with changes in the Consumer Price Index. Homeless families often fall within these guidelines. The Program supports direct care; core public health functions such as resource development, capacity and systems building; population-based functions such as public information and education, knowledge development, outreach and program linkage; technical assistance to communities; and provider training. Most services supported by MCH block grant funds fall within four areas: 1 Direct Health Care - Basic health care services are provided to individual clients generally on a one-on-one basis between health care professionals and patients in a clinic, office, or emergency room; 2 Enabling Services - These services help targeted populations in need to gain access to the care that is available to them.

Types of services include transportation to care, translation services, respite care for family caregivers, and health education programs; 3 Population-based Services - Most of these services are preventive services that are available to everyone. Examples include immunizations, child injury prevention programs, lead poisoning prevention activities, and newborn screening programs; and 4 InfrastructureBuilding - These activities form the foundation of all MCH-funded services. Activities include: evaluation, monitoring, planning, policy development, quality assurance, training and research.

Neither HRSA nor states collect financial data on how many of its program dollars support homeless mothers and children, nor does it collect program data that indicates how many homeless mothers and children are served by Title V. Medicaid, operated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CMS , is a jointly funded, federal-state health insurance program for certain low-income and needy people. In FY , Medicaid provided coverage to more than Programs are funded through states, disproportionately impacted metropolitan areas, community health centers, dental schools, and health care programs that target women, infants, youth, and families. According to our CY CARE Act Data Report CADR , of the 2, providers responding to the question whether they delivered services to special target populations, 1, providers indicated that they provided services to persons experiencing homelessness.

Necessity of housing services for purposes of medical care must be certified or documented. Social Services Block Grant. Funds are allocated to the states on the basis of population. SSBG funds support outcomes across the human service spectrum, and these outcomes are associated with strategic goals and objectives such as employment, child care, child welfare, adoptions, and youth services. The SSBG allows states flexibility in their use of funds for a range of services, depending on state and local priorities.

The SSBG is based on two fundamental principles: 1 state and local governments and communities are best able to determine the needs of individuals to help them achieve self-sufficiency; and 2 social and economic needs are interrelated and must be met simultaneously. States have the flexibility to spend SSBG funds on a variety of services. Of these, services to promote self-sufficiency are the most relevant to homelessness. Territories, SSBG does not collect specific data on amounts expended on homelessness. However, specific eligibility requirements to receive SCHIP benefits, as well as the type and scope of services provided, are determined by each state.

The PADD program provides information and referral services and exercises legal, administrative and other remedies to resolve problems for individuals and groups of clients with developmental disabilities. The PADD program protects the legal and human rights of all persons with developmental disabilities. The amount of funding for the PADD program in an individual State is based on a formula that takes into account the population, the extent of need for services for persons with developmental disabilities, and the financial need of the State. The PADD program in each State has a significant role in enhancing the quality of life of persons with developmental disabilities in every community.

The PADD is mandated to:. The formula grant is intended to provide maximum flexibility to states in determining allocations of the block grant to all populations within the states, dependent on state needs and priorities, including vulnerable and underserved populations such as the homeless and those at risk of homelessness. The authorizing legislation does not, however, specify homeless services and current policy does not encourage set-asides for specific populations. Section of the Act sets forth the following four TANF purposes: 1 provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives; 2 end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; 3 prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and 4 encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.

TANF agencies provide a range of benefits to eligible families who are homeless or at-risk of becoming homeless. Common benefits and services provided to homeless families include: cash assistance for temporary shelter arrangements; assistance to obtain permanent housing; case management services; one-time cash payments; and vouchers for food, clothing, and household expenses. For at-risk families, common benefits include counseling, housing referrals, assistance for past due utility bills, and assistance for arrearages in rent or mortgage payments. As a flexible block grant to states, states are not required to report data related to homelessness.

Appendix B: U. This project will oversee the commissioning of a series of synthesis papers, the organization of a symposium to present and discuss the papers, and the production of a final report featuring the papers commissioned for the project. The findings presented through this project will serve to guide federal and state policymaking, to assist local practitioners in incorporating successful strategies into their programs, and to assist researchers to identify areas meriting future research.

The final report, which will consist of a collection of 12 research papers, will be available in the summer of SAMHSA sponsored a project to identify models of housing for adults with serious mental illnesses and co-occurring substance abuse disorders that may reduce homelessness and institutionalization and promote community living. The study evaluated a cross-site evaluation on six sites using a common data collection protocol and site-specific evaluations, with the goal of developing a supportive housing tool kit. The Homeless Policy Academies were designed to offer states an opportunity to bring together a team of policy-makers, providers, and program leaders to spend three days working on a strategic action plan to increase access to mainstream services for people experiencing chronic homelessness.

Both a process evaluation and an outcome evaluation will document the process, assess the effectiveness of the Academies, and identify lessons learned from the Policy Academy activity for the 49 states and territories who attended a chronic homeless Academy. Final evaluation report is due in late Grants ended in , and a draft evaluation report is currently under development and expected in Recognizing that data on homeless families is not as robust as data available on single adults, this project aims to identify opportunities and strategies to improve data about homeless families upon which future policy and program decisions may be based by investigating the availability of data with which to construct a typology of homeless families.

The final report from this project will be available in the Spring of The study will identify and assess a wide range of practices that show promise or carry evidence of effectiveness in helping young people find appropriate living situations, including those youth who have suffered from systemic failures, such as when child welfare and juvenile justice programs have been incapable of providing effective transitions to adult independence for youth in their care.

Runaway and homeless youth served by FYSB are served in emergency situations and cases where returning home is not an option. The study is anticipated to be released in SAMHSA funded a multi-site study of the effectiveness of services provided to homeless women and their children. Approximately women and their families received services under this program. The study design involved a five-year, cross-site data collection and analysis program involving eight study sites. The project was begun in September of and data collection was concluded in September of A series of articles that report the study findings will be published in the Journal of Community Psychology in This project will examine the range of programs currently offering services to the population and determining the extent to which these programs adhere to best practices approaches.

A total of organizations operating programs have been identified, and data on these programs will be compiled in a national directory of agencies providing services that will be web accessible. ASPE is partnering with HUD and the VA to support an evaluation of the Collaborative Initiative to End Chronic Homelessness, a unique grant program funding 11 sites to develop a comprehensive and integrated community strategy to assist chronically homeless persons to move into stable housing and access a range of support services. Grant funding from HHS, VA, and HUD provides permanent housing, substance abuse and mental health services, primary care services, and case management services for enrolled clients.

Evaluation will examine both client and system-level outcomes, with data collection concluding in March A final report will be available in In May , HRSA funded ten Health Care for the Homeless grantees, for up to five years, to enhance their medical respite services for homeless persons. HRSA also supported a prospective evaluation to 1 document the differing models of respite care delivery being used, and 2 assess the effect of those respite services on the health of homeless persons. A common database was developed to collect client-level data from each of the pilot projects. These results will enable the HCH Program to determine the efficacy of respite services and in what configuration they are most appropriate.

The desired purpose of this pocket handbook is to be utilized as a quick and essential resource tool for clinicians, peer workers, and social service providers in hopes that they will routinely adapt their services and foster better outcomes for homeless clients. Purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluability assessment of discharge planning in institutional and custodial settings, with a specific focus on whether discharge planning is a strategy that can prevent homelessness.

Project included a literature review on discharge planning, the use of an expert panel, documentary analysis of selected exemplary programs, and site visits to exemplary programs. The purpose of this primer is to describe the Medicaid program in the delivery of services to adults with serious mental illnesses; specifically, the primer explains how existing Medicaid options and waivers are used by states to finance a broad range of community services and supports for adults with serious mental illnesses, and to demonstrate what aspects of state-of-the-art community services and supports for this population are funded by Medicaid.

Individuals who are homeless and have mental illnesses often face overwhelming challenges in obtaining disability benefits through the Social Security Administration SSA. A complex application system, confusion over eligibility criteria, and lack of a fixed address can all create seemingly insurmountable hurdles. This manual was designed to assist case managers and other professionals in obtaining critical services for their clients.

This technical assistance report developed in is designed to highlight several state initiatives that increase Medicaid access for people who are chronically homeless. Report available at:. The Mental Health Block Grant provides funds to States to create comprehensive, community-based systems of mental health care.

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